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Robert E. Stratford

Associate Professor of Pharmaceutics
School of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Pharmaceutical Sciences

425 Mellon Hall
Phone: 412.396.6367


Ph.D., Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California
B.S., Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine

Dr. Stratford received his Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences from the University of Southern California in 1987, working under the guidance of Professor Vincent Lee. His work was in the area of topical ocular delivery of peptide drugs, specifically characterizing enzymatic barriers in the cornea and conjunctiva.

After completing his degree, Dr. Stratford joined the Pharmaceutical Sciences Division at Eli Lilly and Company in Indianapolis, Indiana. His research work there centered on developing and applying the Caco-2 model of intestinal absorption to support structure-absorption relationship studies for several chemical scaffolds encompassing neuroscience, cardiovascular, diabetes and infectious disease therapeutic initiatives.

In 1992, Dr. Stratford joined the Drug Disposition Division at Lilly where he continued to study drug absorption; as well, he supported the discovery of several clinical candidates coming from primarily the CNS therapeutic area. He also participated in the clinical development of candidate drugs to treat chronic pain and obesity. Dr. Stratford also established CNS microdialysis while working in Drug Disposition in order to characterize drug transport mechanisms of Lilly drugs across the blood-brain barrier, and to develop pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models in non-clinical species as a translational tool to support human clinical trial dose decision-making.

In 2010, after 23 years at Lilly, Dr. Stratford joined the College of Pharmacy at Xavier University of Louisiana. There, he continued to pursue CNS microdialysis in rats as a translational PK-PD tool. As well, he leveraged his extensive in vitro drug absorption modelling work in Caco-2 to pursue cellular PK-PD inquiries of phytochemicals derived from soy beans.

Dr. Stratford joined the Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the School of Pharmacy in June 2015.

#MeetTheProfessors YouTube Series: Dr. Robert Stratford


Dr. Stratford's research interests are generally in the identification of pharmacokinetic sources of intersubject variability, particularly regarding the intestinal and blood brain barrier absorption of drugs. Characterization of drug metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract by resident bacteria, and understanding variables associated with this source of metabolism is also an area of research.

  • Ashbrook DW, Purdy RE, Hurlbut DE, Rains LA, Reidy JP, Stratford RE. 1980. A Novel Response to Propranolol: Contractile Response in the Isolated Rabbit Ear Artery. Life Sci. 26:155-163.
  • Purdy RE, Ashbrrok DW, Hurlbut DE, Reidy JP, Stratford RE, Watanabe MY. 1981. Effects of Reserpinization, Surgical Denervation with 6-Hydroxydopamine on the Contractile Response of Isolated Rabbit Ear Artery to Propranolol. Blood Vessels 18:153-160.
  • Stratford RE, Yang DC, Redell MA, Lee VH. 1982. Ocular Distribution of Liposome-Encapsulated Epinephrine and Inulin in the Albino Rabbit. Curr. Eye Res. 2:377-386.
  • Lee VH, Morimoto KW, Stratford RE Jr. 1982. Esterase Distribution in the Rabbit Cornea and its Implications in Ocular Drug Bioavailability. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 3:291-300.
  • Lee VH, Swarbrick J, Stratford RE Jr., Morimoto KW. 1983. Disposition of Topically Applied Sodium Cromoglycate in the Albino Rabbit Eye. J Pharm Pharmacol. 35:445-450.
  • Stratford RE Jr., Lee VH. 1985. Aminopeptidase Activity in Albino Rabbit Extraocular Tissues Relative to the Small Intestine. J Pharm Sci. 74:731-734.
  • Stratford RE Jr., Lee VH. 1985. Ocular Aminopeptidase Activity and Distribution in the Albino Rabbit. Curr Eye Res.4:995-999.
  • Lee VH, Carson LW, Kashi SD, Stratford RE Jr. 1986. Metabolic and Permeation Barriers to the Ocular Absorption of Topically Applied Enkephalins in Albino Rabbits. J Ocul Pharmacol. 2:345-352.
  • Stratford RE Jr., Carson LW, Dodda-Kashi S, Lee VH. 1988. Systemic Absorption of Ocularly Administered Enkephalinamide and Inulin in the Albino Rabbit: Extent, Pathways, and Vehicle Effects. J Pharm Sci. 77:838-842.
  • Hu M, Chen J, Zhu Y, Dantzig AH, Stratford RE and Kuhfeld MT. 1994. Mechanism and Kinetics of Transcellular Transport of a New Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Loracarbef Across an Intestinal Epithelial Membrane Model System (Caco-2). Pharm Res 11:1405-1413.
  • Hu M, Zheng L, Chen J, Liu L, Li Y, Dantzig AH and Stratford RE. 1995. Peptide Transporter Function and Prolidase Activities in Caco-2 Cells: A Lack of Coordinated Expression. J Drug Targeting 3:291-300.
  • Hu M., Zheng L, Chen J, Liu L, Zhu Y, Dantzig AH and Stratford RE. 1995. Mechanisms of Transport of Quinapril in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers: Comparison with Cephalexin. Pharm Res 12:1120-1125.
  • Nicas TI, Mullen DL, Flokowitsch JE, Preston DA, Snyder NJ, Stratford RE and Cooper RDG. 1995. Activities of the Semisynthetic Glycopeptide LY191145 Against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. Antimicrob Agents and Chemotherapy 39:2585-2587.
  • Kuhfeld MT and Stratford RE. 1996. A Novel Diffusion Apparatus Compatible with Millicell® Culture Supports: Characterization Using Caco-2 Monolayers. Int J Pharmaceutics 133:47-58.
  • Hu M, Chen J, Zheng L, Dantzig AH and Stratford RE. 1996. Uptake Characteristics of Loracarbef and Cephalexin in the Caco-2 Cell Culture Model: Effects of the Proton Gradient and Possible Presence of a Distinctive Second Component J Pharm Sci 85:767-772.
  • Zornes LL and Stratford RE. 1997. Development of a Plasma High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Assay for LY303366, a Lipopeptide Antifungal Agent, and its Application in a Dog Pharmacokinetic Study. J Chromatography B 695:381-387.
  • Stratford RE, Clay MP, Heinz BA, Kuhfeld MT, Osborne SJ, Phillips DL, Sweetana SA, Tebbe MJ, Vasudevan V, Zornes LL and Lindstrom TD. 1999. Application of Oral Bioavailability Surrogates in the Design of Orally Active Inhibitors of Rhinovirus Replication. J Pharm Sci 88:747-753.
  • Li C, Fleisher D, Li L, Schwier JR, Sweetana SA, Vasudevan V, Zornes LL, Pao LH, Zhou SY and Stratford RE. 2001. Regional-Dependent Intestinal Absorption and Meal Composition Effects on Systemic Availability of LY303366, a Lipopeptide Antifungal Agent, in Dogs. J Pharm Sci 90: 47-57.
  • Ekins S, Durst GL, Stratford RE, Thorner DA, Lewis R, Loncharich RJ and Wikel JH. 2001. Three-Dimensional Quantitative Structure-Permeability Relationship Analysis for a Series of Inhibitors of Rhinovirus Replication. J Chem Inf Comput Sci 41:1578-1586.
  • Filla SA, Winter MA, Johnson KW, Bleakman D, Bell MG, Bleisch TJ, Castano AM, del Prado M, Dieckman DK, Dominguez E, Escribano A, Ho KH, Hudziak KJ, Katofiasc MA, Martinez-Perez JA, Mateo A, Mathes BM, Mattiuz EL, Ogden AML, Phebus LA, Stack DR, Stratford RE and Ornstein PL. 2002. Ethyl (3S,4aR,6S,8aR)-6-(4-Carboxyimidazol-1-ylmethyl)decahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic Acid: A Prodrug of a GluR5 Kainate Receptor Antagonist Active in Two Animal Models of Acute Migraine. J Med Chem 45: 4383-4386.
  • Bueno AB, Collado I, de Dios A, Dominguez C, Martin JA, Martin LM, Martinez-Grau MA, Montero C, Pedregal C, Catlow J, Coffey DS, Clay MP, Dantzig AH, Lindstrom T, Monn JA, Jiang H, Schoepp DD, Stratford RE, Tabas LB, Tizzano JP, Wright RA and Herin MF. 2005. Dipeptides as Effective Prodrugs for the Unnatural Amino Acid (+)-2-Aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxcylic Acid (LY354740), a Selective Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist. J. Med. Chem. 48: 5305-5320.
  • Dominguez E, Iyengar S, Shannon HE, Bleakman D, Alt A, Arnold BM, Bell MG, Bleisch TJ, Buckmaster JL, Castano AM, Del Prado M, Escribano A, Filla SA, Ho KH, Hudziak KJ, Jones CK, Martinez-Perez JA, Mateo A, Mathes BM, Mattiuz EL, Ogden AML, Simmons RMA, Stack DR, Stratford RE, Winter MA, Wu Z, and Ornstein PL. 2005. Two Prodrugs of Potent and Selective GluR5 Kainate Receptor Antagonists Actives in Three Animal Models of Pain. J. Med. Chem. 48: 4200-4203.
  • Weiss B, Alt A, Ogden AM, Gates M, Dieckman DK, Clemens-Smith A, Ho KH, Jarvie K, Rizkalla G, True R, Calligaro DO, Schoepp D, Mattiuz EL, Stratford RE, Johnson B, Salhoff C, Datofiasc M, Phebus LA, Schenck K, Cohen M, Filla SA, Ornstein PL, Johnson KW and Bleakman D. 2006. Pharmacological Characterization of the Competitive GLUK5 Receptor Antagonist Decahydroisoquinoline LY466195 in vitro and in vivo. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 318: 1-10.
  • Alt A, Weiss B, Ornstein P, Gleason SD, Bleakman D, Stratford RE and Witkin JM. 2007. Anxiolytic-Like Effects through a GLUK5 Kainate Receptor Mechanism. Neuropharmacol. 52: 1482-1487.
  • Kielbasa W, Kalvass JC and Stratford R. 2009. Microdialysis Evaluation of Atomoxetine Brain Penetration and Central Nervous System Pharmacokinetics in Rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 37: 137-142.
  • Kielbasa W and Stratford R. 2012. Exploratory Translational Approach in Drug Development to Predict Human Brain Pharmacokinetics and Relevant Clinical Doses: Evaluation with Atomoxetine and Duloxetine. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 40: 877-883.
  • Cremers TIFH, Flik G, Hofland C and Stratford RE. 2012. Microdialysis Evaluation of Clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine Pharmacokinetics in Rat Brain. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 40: 1909-1916.
  • Quadri, SS, Stratford RE, Boue SM and Cole RB. 2013. Screening and Identification of Glyceollins and Their Metabolites by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectroscopy with Precursor Ion Scanning. Analytical Chemistry 85: 1727-1733.
  • Hollinshead, SP, Tidwell MW, Palmer J, Fuidetti R, Sanderson A, Johnson MP, Chambers MG, Oskins J, Stratford R and Astles P. 2013. Selective Cannabinoid Recpetor Type 2 (CB2) Agonists: Optimization of a Series of Purines Leading to the Identification of a Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Osteoarthritic Pain. J. Med. Chem. 56: 5722-5733.
  • Ponnapakkam TP, Katikaneni R, Sakon J, Stratford R and Gensure RC. 2013. Treating Osteoporosis by Targeting Parathyroid Hormone to Bone. Drug Discovery Today 6446 (13): 253-255.
  • Jose A. Martinez-Perez, Smriti Iyengar, Harlan E. Shannon, David Bleakman, Andrew Alt, Brian M. Arnold, Michael G. Bell, Thomas J. Bleisch, Ana M. Castano, Miriam Del Prado, Esteban Dominguez, Ana M. Escribano, Sandra A. Filla, Ken H. Ho, Kevin J. Hudziak, Carrie K. Jones, Ana Mateo, Brian M. Mathes, Edward L. Mattiuz , Ann Marie L. Ogden, Rosa Maria A. Simmons, Douglas R. Stack, Robert E. Stratford, Mark A. Winter, Zhipei Wu, Paul L. Ornstein. 2013. GluK1 antagonists from 6-(carboxy)phenyl decahydroisoquinoline derivatives. SAR and evaluation of a prodrug strategy for oral efficacy in pain models. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 23: 6459-6462.
  • Jose A. Martinez-Perez, Smriti Iyengar, Harlan E. Shannon, David Bleakman, Andrew Alt, Brian M. Arnold, Michael G. Bell, Thomas J. Bleisch, Ana M. Castano, Miriam Del Prado, Esteban Dominguez, Ana M. Escribano, Sandra A. Filla, Ken H. Ho, Kevin J. Hudziak, Carrie K. Jones, Ana Mateo, Brian M. Mathes, Edward L. Mattiuz , Ann Marie L. Ogden, Rosa Maria A. Simmons, Douglas R. Stack, Robert E. Stratford, Mark A. Winter, Zhipei Wu, Paul L. Ornstein. 2013. GluK1 antagonists from 6-(carboxy)phenyl decahydroisoquinoline derivatives. In vitro profile and in vivo analgesic efficacy. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 23: 6463-6466.
  • Stratford R, Vu C, Sakon J, Katikaneni R, Gensure R and Ponnapakkam T. 2013. Pharmacokinetics in Rats of a Long-Acting Human Parathyroid Hormone-Collagen Binding Domain Peptide Construct. J. Pharm. Sci. 103 (2): 768-775.
  • Chimezie C, Ewing AC, Quadri SS, Cole RB, Boue SM, Omari CF, Bratton M, Glotser E, Skripnikova E, Townley I and Stratford R. 2014. Glyceolln Transport, Metabolism, and Effets on P-Glycoprotein Function in Caco-2 Cells. J. Med. Food 17 (4): 462-471.
  • Quadri, SS, Stratford RE, Boue SM and Cole RB. 2014. Identification of Glyceollin Metabolites Derived from Conjugation with Glutathione and Glucuronic Acid in Rats by On-Line Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry. J. Agricul. Food Sci. 62 (12): 2692-2700.
  • Li DH, Stratford, Jr. RE, Velez de Mendizabal N, Cremers TIFH, Pollock BG, Mulsant BH, Remington G and Bies RR. 2014. Prediction of Brain Clozapine and Norclozapine Concentrations in Humans from a Scaled Pharmacokinetic Model for Rat Brain and Plasma Pharmacokinetics. J. Translational Medicine 12: 203-213.
  • Kielbasa W and Stratford, Jr. RE, Use of Microdialysis to Measure Free Drug Concentration in Brain, Chapter 16: pp. 351-364 in "Blood-Brain Barrier in Drug Discovery: Optimizing Brain Exposure of CNS Drugs and Minimizing Brain Side Effects," Di L and Kerns EH, Editors, John Wiley & Sons, 2015.


PHCE 430: Biopharmaceutics

PHCE 432: Pharmacokinetics

GPSC 511: Advanced Pharmacokinetics I