Paula A. Witt-Enderby, Ph.D.Professor Of Pharmacology (Marie-Clement Rodier, C.S.Sp. Endowed Chair)
Mylan School of Pharmacy
Mellon Hall 421
Education:Postdoc, Molecular Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Northwestern University Medical School, 1996
Ph.D., Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, 1993
B.S., Biochemistry, University of Illinois, 1988
#MeetTheProfessors YouTube Series: Dr. Paula Witt-Enderby
United States Patent No. 8,785,501 B2 "Anti-Cancer Tamoxifen-Melatonin Hybrid Ligand," Issued on July 22, 2014. http://www.google.com/patents/US8785501
United States Patent No. 8,618,083 "Combination Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) and Melatonin to Prevent and Treat Mammary Cancer." Issued on December 31, 2013.
United States Patent No. 8,535,706 "Bone Implant." Issued on September 17, 2013
Witt-Enderby, P.A., Lassila, H. and Balk, J.L. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Why hasn't the science kept up with the demand? Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics-open access, Published December 27, 2013. http://omicsgroup.org/journals/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-2167-065X.1000e115.php?aid=23753
Lassila, H., Pratheepawanit-Johns, N., O'Neil, C.K., Johns, J.R., Balk, J.L. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Alternative options to manage menopausal symptoms with a focus on melatonin and osteoporosis. Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics-open access, Published February 12, 2014. http://omicsgroup.org/journals/alternative-options-to-manage-menopausal-symptoms-2167-065X.1000115.php?aid=24059
Maria, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Melatonin Effects on Bone: Potential Use for the Prevention and Treatment of Osteopenia, Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease and for Use in Bone Grafting Procedures. Journal of Pineal Research,
56(2): 115-125, 2014. Invited.
Zlotos, D.P., Jockers, R., Cecon, E., Rivara, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors: Ligands, Models, Oligomers, and Therapeutic Potential. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2013 doi.org/10.1021/jm401343c
Davis, V.L., Abukabda, A.B., Radio, N.M., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Clafshenkel, W.P., Cairone, J.V., and Rutkowski, J.L. Platelet-Rich Preparations to Improve Healing. Part I: Workable Options for Every Size Practice. Journal of Oral Implantology, 40(4): 500-510, 2014. Invited.
Davis, V.L., Abukabda, A.B., Radio, N.M., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Clafshenkel, W.P., Cairone, J.V., and Rutkowski, J.L.Platelet-Rich Preparations to Improve Healing. Part II: Platelet Activation and Enrichment, Leukocyte Inclusion, and Other Selection Criteria
Journal of Oral Implantology, 40(4): 511-521, 2014. Invited.
Witt-Enderby, PA. "Could the Fountain of Youth Be All in Your Bones?" Editorial, Journal of Oral Implantology,, 39 (1), 2012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22506832
Witt-Enderby, P. A., Clafshenkel, W. P., Kotlarczyk, M. P. and Sethi, S. Melatonin in Bone Health. In Melatonin in the Promotion of Health by Ronald Watson (2nd ed), Taylor and Francis Press, 2011.
Davis, V.L., Dodda, B.R. and Witt-Enderby, P. A. The Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer Using Melatonin In Melatonin in the Promotion of Health by Ronald Watson (2nd ed), Taylor and Francis Press, 2011.
Cavanaugh, J. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.. CNS Melatonin Receptors and Signaling: focus on aging-related diseases and future perspectives. Special Topic Issue: From Circadian Signal to Neuroprotection In The Open Neuroendocrinology Journal, 3: 96-104, 2010.
Grant, S.G., Melan, M.A., Latimer, J.J., and Witt-Enderby, P.A..Melatonin and Breast Cancer: Cellular Mechanisms, Clinical Studies and Future Perspectives In Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, 11: E5, 2009.
Witt-Enderby, P.A., Radio, N.M., Doctor, J.S., and Davis, V.L.. Therapeutic Treatments Potentially Mediated by Melatonin Receptors: Potential Clinical Uses in the Prevention of Osteoporosis, Cancer and as an Adjuvant Therapy. Journal Pineal Research 41 (4): 297-305, 2006.
Bondi, C.D., Khairnar R, Kamal K.M., Witt-Enderby P. An Early Development Budget
Impact Model for the use of Melatonin in the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis. Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics 4: 132, 2015, doi: 10.4172/2167- 065X.1000132
Zlotos, D.P., Riad, N.M., Osman, M.B.T., Dodda, B., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Novel difluoroacetamide analogues of agomelatine and melatonin: probing the melatonin receptors for MT1-selectivity. MedChemComm, 2015, doi: 10.1039/c5md00190k
Journé, A-S , Habib, S.A.M., Dodda, B.R., Morcos, M.N.F, Sadek, M.S. Sarah A.A. Tadros, S.A.A., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Jockers, R., Zlotos, D.P. N1-Linked Melatonin Dimers as Bivalent Ligands Targeting Dimeric Melatonin Receptors. Medicinal Chemistry Communications, 5(6): 792-796, 2014.
Bondi, C.D., Alonso-Gonzalez, C., Clafshenkel, W.P., Kotlarczyk, M.P, Dodda, B.R., Sanchez-Barcelo, E., Davis, V. L., Witt-Enderby, P.A.. The Effect of Estradiol, Progesterone, and Melatonin on Estrous Cycling and Ovarian Aromatase Expression in Intact Female Mice. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 175: 80-85, 2014.
Kirker, R.M., Gallagher, K.M., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Davis, V.L. High affinity nuclear and nongenomic estradiol binding sites in the human and mouse lens. Exp Eye Res 112: 1-10, 2013
Witt-Enderby, P.A., Slater, J.P., Johnson, N.A., Bondi, C.D., Dodda, B. R., Kotlarczyk, M.P., Clafshenkel, W.P., Sethi, S, Higginbotham, S, Rutkowski, J. L., Gallagher, K.M., and Davis,V.L. Effects on Bone by the Light/Dark Cycle and Chronic Treatment with Melatonin and/or Hormone Replacement Therapy in Intact Female Mice. J Pineal Res, 53(4):374-384, 2012.
Clafshenkel, W.P., King, T.L., Kotlarczyk,M.P., Cline, J.M., Foster, W.G.,Davis, V.L. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.. Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) Juice Augments Mammary Gland Differentiation and Reduces Mammary Tumor Growth in Mice Expressing the Unactivated c-erbB Transgene. Evidence-Based Comp Alt Med, 2012. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/487423
Clafshenkel, W.P., Rutkowski, J.L., Palchesko, R.N., Romeo, J.D., McGowan, K.A., Gawalt,E.S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.. A Novel Calcium Aluminate-Melatonin Scaffold Enhances Bone Regeneration within a Calvarial Defect. J Pineal Res, 2012. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2012.00989.x/abstract
Kotlarczyk, MP, Lassila, HC, O'Neil, CK, D'Amico, F, Enderby, LT, Witt-Enderby, PA, and Balk, JL. Melatonin Osteoporosis Prevention Study (MOPS): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examining the effects of melatonin on bone health and quality of life in perimenopausal women. J Pineal Res. 2012, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2011.00956.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2011.00956.x/abstract
Clinical trial identifier NCT01152580: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01152580?term=MOPS&rank=2
Markl, C., Clafshenkel, W.P., Attia, M.I., Sethi, S., Witt-Enderby, P.A. and .Zlotos, D.P.: N-acetyl-5-arylalkoxytryptamine analogs: probing the melatonin receptors towards MT1-selectivity. Arch Pharm Chem Life Sci, 344: 666-674, 2011.
Heckman, D, Attia, M.I.,Benham, M.A.M., Mohsen, A.M.Y., Markl, C., Julius, J.J., Sethi, S., Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Zlotos, D.P: 2-[(1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-yl)methyl]-melatonin-a novel MT2-selective melatonin receptor antagonist. Med Chem Commun, 2: 991-994, 2011.
Sethi, S., Radio, N.M., Kotlarczyk, M.P., Chen, C.T., Wei, Y.H. , Jockers, R. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.. Determination of the minimal melatonin exposure required to induce osteoblast differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cells and these effects on downstream signaling pathways. J Pineal Res, 49: 222-238, 2010.
Markl, C., Attia, M.I., Julius, J., Sethi, S., and Witt-Enderby, P.A..: Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrazino [1,2-a]indole and 2-[(phenylmethylamino)methyl]-1H-indole analogues as novel melatonergic ligands. Bioorg Med Chem, 17: 4583-4594, 2009.
Jarzynka, M.J., Passey, D.K., Johnson, D.A., Konduru, N., Fitz, N., Radio, N.M., Rasenick, M., Benloucif, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Microtubules Modulate Melatonin Receptors Involved in Phase-shifting Circadian Activity Rhythms: In vitro and in vivo evidence, J Pineal Res, 46 (2): 161-171, 2009.
Zlotos, D.P., Attia, M.I., Julius, J., Sethi, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.: 2-[(2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-1-yl)methyl]-melatonin Analogues: A novel class of MT2-selective melatonin receptor antagonists. J Med Chem, 52 (3): 826-833, 2009.
Bondi, C.D., McKeon, R.M., Bennett, J.M., Ignatius, P.F., Brydon, L, Jockers, R., Melan, M.A., and Witt-Enderby, P.A.: MT1 melatonin receptor internalization underlies melatonin-induced morphologic changes in Chinese hamster ovary cells and these processes are dependent on Gi proteins, MEK 1/2 and microtubule modulation. J Pineal Res 44 (3): 288-298, 2008.
Attia, M.I. Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Julius, J.: Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of pentacyclic 6a,7-dihydrodiindole and 2,3-dihydrodiindole derivatives as novel melatoninergic ligands. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 16: 7654-7661, 2008.
Sethi, S., Adams, W., Pollock, J. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.: C-terminal Domains within Human MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors are Involved in Internalization Processes. J Pineal Res, 45 (2): 212-218, 2008.
Attia, M.I., Julius, J., Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Zlotos, D.P.: Synthesis, NMR Conformational Analysis and Pharmacological Evaluation of 6,7, 13,14-tetrahydro-7aH-cyclobuta[2',3']indolo [2',1':2,3] pyrimido [1,2-a]indole analogs as potential melatonin receptor ligands, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 5:2129-2137, 2007.
Attia, M.I., Julius, J,. Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Zlotos, D.P.: Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of 13a, 14-dihydro-6H, 13H-pyrazino[1,2-a;4,5-a']diindole analogs as potential melatonin receptor ligands, Tetrahedron, 63: 754-760, 2007.
Jarzynka MJ., Passey D.K., Ignatius, P. F., Melan, M. A., Radio N. M., Jockers, R, Rasenick, M. M., Brydon, L. and Witt-Enderby. P. A.. Modulation of Melatonin Receptors and G-protein Function by Microtubules Journal of Pineal Research 41: 324-336, 2006.
Radio, N.M., Doctor, J.S., and Witt-Enderby, P.A.: Melatonin Enhances Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Differentiating Human Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Grown in Osteogenic Medium via MT2 Melatonin Receptors and the MEK/ERK (1/2) Signaling Cascade, Journal of Pineal Research 40 (4):332-342, 2006.
05/01/13 - 04/30/14, "Budget Impact Analysis of Melatonin in the Prevention or Treatment of Osteoporosis", Translational Research Grant, Duquesne University. co-PI.
05/01/13 - 04/30/15, "Novel chrono-synergistic use of combination melatonin and strontium with nutritional co-factors for the treatment of osteopenia-osteoporosis and improvements in quality of life (QOL)." Translational Research Grant, Duquesne University. PI.
Clinical Trials registration number: NCT01870115 "Melatonin micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS)"
04/16/12 - 04/15/13, "Assessing and Characterizing the Binding Characteristics for KB Small Molecules to Rat Forebrain Mitochondria and Mitochondria from Cells in Culture." Knopp Biosciences, LLC. PI.
01/01/08 - 12/31/11, "The Effect of Melatonin on Bone Turnover Markers in Peri-menopausal Women", Translational Research Grant, Duquesne University. PI.
01/01/08 - 12/31/10, "Development of a Bone-Regenerative Scaffold," Pennsylvania Department of Health. PI.
05/01/07 - 04/30/08, "Pharmacological Evaluation of 13a, 14 dihydro-6H-pyrazino[1,2-a;4,5-a']diindole Analogs as Melatonin Receptor Ligands Using Competition Binding Analysis and Recombinant Cell Lines Expressing the Human MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors" American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education.
07/01/06 - 04/30/09, "The Effect of Melatonin's Efficacy at Reducing Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer Risk", Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, PI.
"Health notes: Bone-loss study seeks 20 women volunteers" Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 3, 2014 9:32 PM. Read more: http://www.post-gazette.com/news/health/2014/03/04/Bone-loss-study-seeks-20-women-volunteers/stories/201403040055#ixzz2vHPtkLDT
"Research finds better sleep makes for stronger bones" by Haldan Kirsch. 90.5 WESA Pittsburgh's NPR News Station, December 16, 2013.
"Circadian rhythms may be in our bones, not just our heads" by Karen Ferrick-Roman Duquesne University Campus Times December 11, 2013. Circadian Rhythms May Be in Our Bones, Not Just Our Heads
"Clinical Trial at Duquesne University to Examine Natural Bone Treatment" by Karen Ferrick-Roman Duquesne University Campus Times July 30th, 2013.
"Melatonin Chronosynergy, Women and Aging: Expert Interview with Paula Witt-Enderby, PhD and Judith Balk, MPH, MD by Mark Swanson, ND. Naturopathic Doctor News and Review, February 14, 2012.
"Professor's Clinical Trial Indicates Melatonin's Positive Effects on Bones", February 1, 2012.
"Duquesne Study Aims to Curb Bone Loss" by Luis Fabregas, Monday, March 23, 2009
"The Cure: Western Pa. Has Become an Important Player in the Fight to Stop Cancer" by Allison M. Heinrichs. Monday, May 7, 2007. (also in video)
"Many Paths to Choose: Careers in Cancer Research" by Jule Clayton, Science, April 6, 2007.
http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_magazine/previous_issues/articles/2007_04_06/science.opms.r07000292013-2014, Editorial Board, Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics
2014-2015, Co-Editor-In-Chief for Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics
2012-present, Editorial Board, Dataset Papers in Cell Biology
2011-present, Editorial Board, Journal of Oral Implantology
2012-present, Editorial Board, Journal of Pineal Research
2014-Outstanding Student Organization Advisor, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA
2013-present, Officer: Faculty Liaison for The Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi
January 2014-December 2014, President, American Association for University Professors
2010-January, 2014, Vice President, American Association for University Professors
2010-present, Golden Key International Honour Society (Membership, by invitation only, is given to faculty who have demonstrated superior commitment and scholarship.)
2010-present, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
2008-present, The Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi (Membership, by invitation only, is given to faculty who have achieved scholarly distinction.)
2006-2010, President, Faculty Senate, Duquesne University
2004-2005, Acting President of the Faculty Senate, Duquesne University
2004-2006, Vice President of the Faculty Senate, Duquesne University
1989-2011, Society for Neuroscience
1989-present, American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
1996-present, Rho Chi Pharmacy Honor Society
1996-present, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP)
1999-present, Faculty Advisor, Kappa Epsilon (Alpha Phi Chapter), Professional Female Fraternity
Toth, E.E., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Nowacki, M. Working on the Margins: Preparing Health Professionals for their Public Education Role 39th Annual Conference of the Eastern Educational Research Association, Hilton Head Island, February 17-20, 2016.
Toth, E.E., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Making the World a Better Place by Educating the Public with Equity, Justice and Respect. National Association for Research in Science Teaching Conference, Baltimore, MD. 2016
"Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): Clinical and Molecular Findings", July 19-24, 2015. FASEB Summer Research Conference: Melatonin Biology: Actions and Therapeutics, Lisbon, Portugal. (Session Chair and Presenter)
"Use of Melatonin to Improve Bone Health in Perimenopausal Woman Using Clinical and Basic Science Approaches". March 9, 2015, Bone and Mineral Research Seminar Series, Center for Bone and Mineral Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
Toth, E.E., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Fama, J.R. College Students' Perspectives and Reasoning about Over-The-Counter and Internal Health Monitoring Devices. National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Chicago, IL (April 11 - April 14, 2015).
"Melatonin-based Strategies to Treating Bone Disease: focus on melatonin-mediated effects on bone cells using a novel co-culture system". December 2-3, 2014, OMICS Group 2nd International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy, San Francisco, CA. http://clinicalpharmacy2014.pharmaceuticalconferences.com/scientific-program.php?day=1&sid=482&date=2014-12-02.php
Maria, S., Witt-Enderby, P.A. Mechanisms Underlying the Effect of Melatonin on Bone. American Association of Pharmaceutical Sciences (AAPS), San Diego, CA, November 2-6, 2014.
Maria, S. Swanson, M., Lassila, M., O'Neil, C., Witt-Enderby, P.A. Mechanisms Underlying the Effect of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 and Vitamin K2 on Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Peripheral Blood Monocytes Grown as Co-cultures. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Houston, TX, September, 2014.
Bondi, C.D., Khairnar, R.R., Witt-Enderby, P., Kamal, K.M. An Early Development Budget Impact Model for the use of Melatonin in the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Houston, TX, September, 2014.
"Melatonin and Melatonin Receptors in the Differentiation of Stem Cells", June 23-28, 2013, Melatonin Receptors and Therapeutics FASEB Summer Research Conference, Niagara Falls, NY.
St. Hilaire, M.A. Flynn-Evans, E.E., Higginbotham, S., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Lockley, S.W.
Analysis of 48-hr profiles of melatonin and the bone resorption marker amino-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of collagen I (NTx) in blind women with and without light perception. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Baltimore, MD, 2013.
"The Effects of a Novel Estrogen (E), Progesterone (P) and Melatonin (M) Replacement Therapy (EPMRT) on HER2+/neu Mammary Cancer Development, Growth and Progression and Potential Mechanisms Underlying its Protective Actions." June 28, 2012, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA.
"Mechanisms Underlying Melatonin-induced Cellular Differentiation and its Application to Assessing Melatonin's Potency to Shift Circadian Activity Rhythms in Rats." November 2, 2011, Moorehouse School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Atlanta, GA.
"Actions and Therapeutics Melatonin Receptors III: Regulation of Signaling and Neurogensesis." June 26-30, 2011, FASEB Summer Research Conference, Snowmass, CO.
"From Cell Biology to Translational Research: the application of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, to bone formation and to the prevention of osteoporosis." October 12, 2010, Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University.
Toth, E.E., Espenshade, J. and Witt-Enderby, P.A., Pharmacy Students, Analysis of Medical Advertisements: A Method to Improve Instructional Practice Based on Research and Learning. National Association for Research in Science Teaching , March 24, 2010, Philadelphia, PA.
"Melatonin and Hormone Replacement Therapy in a Preclinical Model of Mammary Cancer", February 7-12, 2010, Gordon Research Conference, Pineal Cell Biology, Galveston, TX
"The Effects of and Mechanisms Underlying Melatonin-induced Cellular Differentiation", February 22, 2008, Department of Biology, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA.
"Melatonin Signaling and Cellular Differentiation: potential targets for the prevention of osteoporosis and breast cancer", August 10-15, 2008, Melatonin Receptors and Therapeutics, FASEB Summer Research Conference, Snowmass, CO.
Witt-Enderby, P.A., Julius, J, Attia, M.I., and Zlotos, D.P. The Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel and High-Affinity Melatonin Receptor Ligands. Experimental Biology Abstract # 724.9, 2008.
Sethi, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Critical Time Periods of Melatonin Exposure Enhance Osteoblast Differentiation From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Experimental Biology, Abstract # 782.12, 2008.
Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Latimer, J.J. Melatonin Effects on Disease-free and Stage III Breast Tumor Cultures. University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Scientific Retreat, June 21-22, 2007.
Kirker, R.M., Rea, S.L., Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Davis, V.L. Identification of Estrogen-Regulated Genes in the Lens Using ERd3 Transgenic Mouse Model with Inducible Cataracts. US-Japan Cooperative Cataract Research Group Meeting, Kailua-Kona, HI, Dec 2007.
"Melatonin Effects on Cellular Differentiation: the potential involvement of stem cells", May 29, 2007, University of Pittsburgh, Center for Environmental Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA.
"The Pharmacology of Pain Management", November 9, 2006, Ohio Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Conference, Columbus, OH.
"Panel Presentation on Proposal for Blackboard User Group" March 5, 2007, Pittsburgh Blackboard Users Conference, Duquesne University.
Sethi, S., Radio, N, Jockers, R., Adams, W. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Scaffolds Between MT2 Melatonin Receptors, Gi, Beta Arrestin, MEK and ERK Form in Differentiating Bone Stem Cells and These Processes Require Internalization; domains found to exist in the C-tail of the MT2 receptor. Experimental Biology, 2007.
"Signaling Mechansims Underlying Melatonin-induced Cellular Differentiation", 2006 Melatonin Receptor Symposium, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, September 29, 2006.
"The Pharmacology of Pain Management with an Emphasis on Neuropathic Pain", July 15, 2006, HospiceCare 2020 Conference, ProCare/Hospice Care, Atlanta, GA.
"Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Melatonin's Effects on Cellular Differentiation", June 15, 2006, Center for Environmental Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Oakland, PA.
"Use of Personal Response System (PRS) Keypads in the Classroom", Turning Point Technologies Symposium, March, 2006, Duquesne University.