Contact Information


William E. Spangler is a Professor of Information Systems and Technology in the Palumbo Donahue School of Business at Duquesne University. He has taught a wide array of technical and managerial courses in information systems, focusing in the past few years on information systems auditing, control and security. He also has been heavily involved in the international programs over the past 10 years, having led student groups on study abroad trips to destinations that have included Europe, South America, China, India, Japan, and South Africa.

Since coming to Duquesne, Dr. Spangler has received several teaching awards, including the Palumbo-Donahue Outstanding Educator Award, the Rethwisch Outstanding Teaching Award, two Duquesne University Creative Teaching Awards, and an Apple Polishing Award. He also has published several academic journal articles related to instructional design and strategies within the information systems curriculum.

Dr. Spangler's research interests have focused on computational modeling for decision support in complex systems, as well as machine learning and data mining. His work has been published in numerous academic journals, including Management Science, Communications of the ACM, Journal of Management Information Systems, Decision Support Systems, Information and Management, Production and Operations Management, Interfaces, and IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering.

Prior to joining the faculty at Duquesne, Dr. Spangler spent several years in private industry working for Fortune 500 companies such as Unisys Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, as well as small companies such as the R&D firm Seer Systems. He also taught for three years in the business school at West Virginia University immediately prior to his move to Duquesne. He is a member of the Association for Information Systems (AIS), the International Association for Computer Information Systems (IACIS), the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA), and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA).

In his spare time, Dr. Spangler loves to travel and particularly enjoys the outdoors, including hiking and bike-riding. He also enjoys photography and all types of electronic gadgets.


Ph.D., Artificial Intelligence and Management Information Systems, University of Pittsburgh

Profile Information

My core research background and training is in artificial intelligence; specifically the construction of computer models that are intended to simulate, and therefore explain, certain aspects of human reasoning. My doctoral work focused on simulating the procedure-driven behavior of nuclear power plant operators, but later extended into data mining and the construction of classification/predictive computer models. Those models have been applied in such diverse areas as health care, specifically surgical suite scheduling and operations, as well as in targeted advertising (i.e., profiling individual demographic and psychographic characteristics from their television viewing patterns).

Subsequently, in keeping with the mission of the business school and the university, I have extended my research into the areas of sustainability and social responsibility, particularly the role and impact of information technology in those areas. This has included a follow-up study of the privacy implications associated with identifying individual characteristics from their television viewing, and a study of the how organizations can respond to the concerns of individuals regarding the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags in purchased items. More recently, I am working with my colleagues here at Duquesne to explore the impact of on-line social networks in fostering what might be termed 'charitable behavior' in individuals. In so doing, this study also seeks to compare the influence of OSNs across different nations, including the US, China and India. In separate studies, we also are exploring attitudes and behaviors surrounding the use and impact of information technology in driving corporate sustainability.

Articles in Journals

Hartzel, K., & Spangler, W. (2019). A High-Reliability Approach to Risk Management in an IT Project. Journal of Computer Information Systems.

Pike, J. (2017). Role-Playing and Problem-Based Learning. Information Systems Education Journal, 15 (4), 75-83.

Spangler, W., Hartzel, K., & Marley, K. (2016). On-Line Social Network Adoption: A Cross-Cultural Study. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 56 (2), 87-96.

Spangler, W., Williams, V., Pike, J., & Kollar, R. (2015). PICPA's Challenge Bolsters Classroom Learning. CPA Journal, 86 (3), 67.

Spangler, W., Sroufe, R., Madia, M., & Singadivakkam, J. (2014). Sustainability-Focused Knowledge Management in a Global Enterprise. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 55 (1), 70-82.

Spangler, W. & Phelps, A. L. (2013). Customized versus Standardized Exams for Learning Outcomes Assessment in an Undergraduate Business Program. American Journal of Business Education, 6 (5), 521-530.

Spangler, W., May, J., Strum, D., & Vargas, L. (2011). The Surgical Scheduling Problem: A Survey Of Current Research And Opportunities For Future Exploration. Production and Operations Management, 20 (3), 392-405.

Spangler, W., Gal-Or, M., & May, J. (2010). When to Choose an Ensemble Classifier Model for Data Mining. International Journal of Business Intelligence and Data Mining, 5 (3), 297-318.

Spangler, W., Gal-Or, M., & Wasieleski, D. (2010). Facilitating Consumer Acceptance of RFID and Related Ubiquitous Technologies. International Journal of Applied Logistics, 1 (1), 16-27.

Spangler, W., Hartzel, K., Gal-Or, M., & May, J. (2009). MODELING COMPLEXITY IN PHYSICALLY-DISTRIBUTED OBJECT-ORIENTED SYSTEMS. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 50 (1), 74-81.

Spangler, W., Abreu, C., May, J., & Vargas, L. (2008). Decision Support for Conflict Identification and Reconciliation in Collaborative Manufacturing Scheduling. International Journal of Information Technology and Decision Making, 7 (8), 147 - 174.

Spangler, W., Hartzel, K., & Gal-Or, M. (2006). Exploring the Privacy Implications of Addressable Advertising and Viewer Profiling. Communications of the ACM, 49, 119-123.

Spangler, W., Gal-Or, E., Gal-Or, M., & May, J. (2006). Targeted Advertising Strategies on Television. Management Science, 52 (5), 713-725.

Spangler, W., Morris, B., & Pushkin, A. (2006). A Task-centered, Multiple Method Approach to Teaching Fraud Risk Assessment. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 3 (3).

Spangler, W., Gal-Or, M., & May, J. (2005). Assessing The Predictive Accuracy of Diversity Measures with Domain-Dependent, Asymmetric Misclassification Costs. Information Fusion, 6 (1), 37-48.

Spangler, W., Strum, D., May, J., & Vargas, L. (2004). Estimating Surgical Procedure Times By Determining Location Parameters for the Lognormal Model. Health Care Management Science, 7 (2).

Spangler, W., Strum, D., May, J., Sampson, A., & Vargas, L. (2003). Estimating times of surgeries with two component procedures: comparison of the lognormal and normal models. Anesthesiology, 98 (1), 232-240.

Spangler, W., Gal-Or, M., & Jones, T. (2003). An Integrated, Systems Architectural Approach to Information Technology Education. Issues in Information Systems, 4, 129-135.

Spangler, W., Fairbank, J., & Williams, S. (2003). Building Networks And Motivating Creativity Through Computer-Mediated Communications. Behavior & Information Technology, 22 (5), 305-314.

Spangler, W., Gal-Or, M., & May, J. (2003). Using Data Mining To Profile Television Viewers In The Digital TV Era. Communications of the ACM, 46 (12).

Spangler, W., Hartzel, K., Gal-Or, M., & Jones, T. (2003). A Case-Based Approach to Integrating an Information Technology Curriculum. Information Systems Education Journal, 1 (47).

Spangler, W. & Denton, J. (2002). Effectiveness of an Integrated Pre-capstone Project in Learning Information Systems Concepts. Journal of Information Systems Education, 12 (3).

Spangler, W., May, J., Strum, D., & Vargas, L. (2002). A Data Mining Approach to Characterizing Medical Code Usage Patterns. Journal of Medical Systems.

Spangler, W. (2001). A Field Study of IT Deployment in a Specialty Chemicals Company. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 41 (3).

Spangler, W. & Peters, J. M. (2001). A Model of Distributed Knowledge and Action in Complex Systems. Decision Support Systems, 31 (1).

Spangler, W., Strum, D. P., Vargas, L. G., & May, J. H. (2000). A Minimal Cost Analysis Model for Utilization and Capacity Planning in Surgical Services. International Journal of Healthcare Technology Management, 2 (1/2/3/4).

Spangler, W., Strum, D. P., Vargas, L. G., & May, J. H. (2000). Computer-Based Operational and Decision Support for Surgical Services. International Journal of Healthcare Technology Management, 2 (1/2/3/4).

Spangler, W. & Peters, J. M. (2000). Management Control of Complex, Mission-Critical Processes. International Journal of Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance, & Mgt., 9.

Spangler, W., May, J. H., & Vargas, L. G. (1999). Choosing Data Mining Methods for Multiple Classification: Representational and Performance Measurement Implications for Decision Support. Journal of Management Information Systems, 16 (1).

Spangler, W., May, J. H., & Chen, S. (1993). Hybrid System Improves Claims Auditing at Blue Cross. Interfaces, 23 (6).

Spangler, W. & May, J. H. (1992). Success and Failure in Cooperative Knowledge-based Systems Development: A Tale of Two Projects. Journal of Systems and Software, 19 (2).

Spangler, W. (1991).The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Understanding the Strategic Decision Making Process. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 3 (2).

Spangler, W., May, J., Wendell, R., & Zahn, H. (1991). A Knowledge-based Approach for Improving Information and Decision Making in a Small Business. Information & Management, 21.

Spangler, W., Abraham, D., & May, J. (1991). EXPERTECH: Issues in the Design and Development of an Intelligent Help Desk System. Expert Systems with Applications: An International Journal, 2.

Articles in Proceedings

Hartzel, K., & Spangler, W. (2018). Managing IT Implementation Risk: A Model from High Reliability Organizations. International Association of Computer Information Systems.

Hartzel, K., & Spangler, W. (2017). Managing High-risk Project and IT Complexity Following a Corporate Restructuring. International Association for Computer Information Systems Conference.


Spangler, W., Hartzel, K., & Kirsch, L. (in press, 2014). Enterprise Systems Implementation In A Public Utility: Communication And Control Issues. International Association for Computer Information Systems Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

Spangler, W.., Hartzel, K., & Kirsch, L. (2014). Communication and Control Strategies in Enterprise Systems Implementation & Integration. Global Information Technology Management Association (GITMA) Conference, Valley Forge, PA.

Spangler, W., Hartzel, K., & Marley, K. (2013). On-Line Social Network Adoption for Social Causes: A Cross-Cultural Study. Northeastern Association of Business, Economics and Technology.

Spangler, W., Hartzel, K., Phelps, A., & Martinez, A. (in press, 2009). An Empirical Study of Emerging Trends in On-Line Social Network Usage. International Association for Computer Information Systems Conference.

Spangler, W., Hartzel, K., Grantz, M., & Galletta, D. (2006). Toward an Adaptive Structuration Model of International Cyber-Crime. Americas Conference on Information Systems, Association for Information Systems, 78-81.

Spangler, W. & Gal-Or, M. (2004). Issues in the Selection of Technology for an IT Curriculum. International Academy of Business and Public Administration Conference.

Spangler, W, Gal-Or, M., & May, J. (2003). A Multistrategy Data Mining Approach To Classification. Americas Conference on Information Systems.

Spangler, W., May, J., Strum, D., & Vargas, L. (2001). Using Data Mining Techniques to Characterize Diagnostic and Procedural Patterns. Americas Conference on Information Systems.

Paper Presentations

Spangler, W. (2012, February). Current Issues in Cyber-Security. American Association for University Women - Great Decisions, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Spangler, W. & Hartzel, K. S. (2010, October). On-Line Social Networks as knowledge communities: influences on collaboration in social causes. International Conference on Knowledge Management, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Spangler, W., Hartzel, K., Gal-Or, M., & May, J. (2008, May). Blurring the Boundaries Between Physical and Digital Systems Through Object-Oriented Design and Implementation. 8th Academy of Business and Information Technology Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Spangler, W., Gal-Or, M., Hartzel, K., & May, J. (2007). A Decentralized Information Security Model for Collecting and Managing RFID Data. INFORMS Annual Meeting, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico.

Spangler, W. (2001). If We Build It, They will Learn: Teaching E-commerce in a Virtual Economy. Americas Conference on Information Systems, Boston, Massachusetts.

Chapters, Cases, Readings, Supplements

Fairbank, J., Morris, B., & Spangler, W. (2019). Educating Business Students For The Age Of Intelligent Machines: A Framework For On-Line Ai-Enabled Learning. Management and Business Education in the time of Artificial Intelligence.

Spangler, W., Strum, D., Vargas, L., & Stanciu, A. (2009). Concepts of Operating Room Efficiency. In J. Stonemetz & K. Ruskin (Eds.), Anesthesia Informatics: Springer.