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Board Certification National Ayurvedic Medical Association, June 2017
Ayurvedic Health Counselor, Kripalu School of Ayurveda, May 2017
PostDoc, Molecular Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Northwestern University Medical School, 1996
Ph.D., Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, 1993
B.S., Biochemistry, University of Illinois, 1988

Profile Information


United States Patent No. 8,785,501 B2 "Anti-Cancer Tamoxifen-Melatonin Hybrid Ligand," Issued on July 22, 2014.

United States Patent No. 8,618,083 "Combination Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) and Melatonin to Prevent and Treat Mammary Cancer." Issued on December 31, 2013.

United States Patent No. 8,535,706 "Bone Implant." Issued on September 17, 2013


Goldman, R.D., Bongiorno, P.B., Olcese, J.M., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Shatkin, J.P. Myths and facts regarding melatonin supplementation for occasional sleeplessness in pediatric populations. Pediatr Ann, 2021 50(9): e391-e395.

Munmun F, Witt-Enderby PA. Melatonin effects on bone: implications for use as a therapy for managing bone loss. J Pineal Res. 2021 Jun 4:e12749. doi: 10.1111/jpi.12749. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34085304.
*This review was recognized as the top cited article for 2021-2022 in the Journal of Pineal Research

Witt-Enderby, P. and Mehta, B.V. "Conflict Resolution of Mind and Body Using Ayurveda and Yoga." Natural Healing as Conflict Resolution, edited by Rebecca Nicholson, IGI Global, 2021, pp. 181-199. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-3665-0.ch008

Boutin, J.A., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Sotriffer, C., Zlotos, D.P., Melatonin receptor ligands: A pharmaco-chemical perspective. J. Pineal Res., June 2020. DOI: 10.1111/jpi.12672.

"Having the Bone Health Talk with Clients. A diagnosis of osteoporosis means it's time to modify, not end, a workout regimen." IDEA Fitness Journal. October 2019. Pp. 16 to 19.

Wasko, M., Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Surratt, C.K., DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Ibogaine. ACS Chem Neurosci. DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00294.

Hasan, M., Leak, R.K., Stratford, R.E., Zlotos, D.P., and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Drug conjugates - an emerging approach to treat breast cancer. Pharmacology Research and Perspectives, 6 (4): e00417, 2018.

Maria, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Circadian Regulation of Bone In Circadian Rhythms and Their Impact on Aging. Jazwinski, Belancio and Hill eds., Springer Publishing. pp. 69-82, 2017. Invited.

Davis, V.L., Abukabda, A.B., Radio, N.M., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Clafshenkel, W.P., Cairone, J.V., and Rutkowski, J.L. Platelet-Rich Preparations to Improve Healing. Part I: Workable Options for Every Size Practice. Journal of Oral Implantology, 40(4): 500-510, 2014.

Davis, V.L., Abukabda, A.B., Radio, N.M., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Clafshenkel, W.P., Cairone, J.V., and Rutkowski, J.L.Platelet-Rich Preparations to Improve Healing. Part II: Platelet Activation and Enrichment, Leukocyte Inclusion, and Other Selection Criteria
Journal of Oral Implantology, 40(4): 511-521, 2014.

Lassila, H., Pratheepawanit-Johns, N., O'Neil, C.K., Johns, J.R., Balk, J.L. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Alternative options to manage menopausal symptoms with a focus on melatonin and osteoporosis. Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics-open access, Published February 12, 2014.

Maria, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Melatonin Effects on Bone: Potential Use for the Prevention and Treatment of Osteopenia, Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease and for Use in Bone Grafting Procedures. Journal of Pineal Research, 56(2): 115-125, 2014. Invited.

Zlotos, D.P., Jockers, R., Cecon, E., Rivara, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors: Ligands, Models, Oligomers, and Therapeutic Potential. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2013

Witt-Enderby, P.A., Lassila, H. and Balk, J.L. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Why hasn't the science kept up with the demand? Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics-open access, Published December 27, 2013.

Witt-Enderby, P.A. "Could the Fountain of Youth Be All in Your Bones?" Editorial, Journal of Oral Implantology,, 39 (1), 2012.

Witt-Enderby, P.A., Clafshenkel, W. P., Kotlarczyk, M. P. and Sethi, S. Melatonin in Bone Health. In Melatonin in the Promotion of Health by Ronald Watson (2nd ed), Taylor and Francis Press, 2011. Invited

Davis, V.L., Dodda, B.R. and Witt-Enderby, P. A. The Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer Using Melatonin In Melatonin in the Promotion of Health by Ronald Watson (2nd ed), Taylor and Francis Press, 2011. Invited

Cavanaugh, J. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.. CNS Melatonin Receptors and Signaling: focus on aging-related diseases and future perspectives. Special Topic Issue: From Circadian Signal to Neuroprotection In The Open Neuroendocrinology Journal, 3: 96-104, 2010. Invited

Grant, S.G., Melan, M.A., Latimer, J.J., and Witt-Enderby, P.A..Melatonin and Breast Cancer: Cellular Mechanisms, Clinical Studies and Future Perspectives In Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, 11: E5, 2009. Invited

Grant, S.G., Melan, M.A., Latimer, J.J., and Witt-Enderby, P.A..Melatonin and Breast Cancer: Cellular Mechanisms, Clinical Studies and Future Perspectives In Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, 11: E5, 2009. Invited

Witt-Enderby, P.A., Radio, N.M., Doctor, J.S, and Davis, V.L.. MINIREVIEW
Therapeutic Treatments Potentially Mediated by Melatonin Receptors: Potential Clinical Uses in the Prevention of Osteoporosis, Cancer and as an Adjuvant Therapy In Journal of Pineal Research, 41 (4): 297- 305, 2006. Invited

Witt-Enderby, P.A., Bennett, J., Jarzynka, M.J., Firestine, S. and Melan, M.A. Melatonin Receptors and their Regulation: Biochemical and Structural Mechanisms In Life Sciences, 72(2): 2183-2198 (2003). Invited

Witt-Enderby, P.A., Bennett, J., Jarzynka, M.J., Firestine, S. and Melan, M.A. Melatonin Receptors and their Regulation: Biochemical and Structural Mechanisms In Life Sciences, 72(2): 2183-2198 (2003). Invited

Witt-Enderby, P.A. and Li, P.K, Melatonin Receptors and Ligands InVitamins and Hormones 58: 321-354 (2000). Invited

Li, P.K. and Witt-Enderby, P.A., Melatonin Receptors as Targets for Drug Discovery, In Drugs of the Future, 25(9): 945-957 (2000). Invited

Stayduhar, J.M.; Covvey, J.R.; Schreiber, J.B.; Witt-Enderby, P.A. Pharmacist and Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Herbal Supplements and Natural Products. Pharmacy 2023, 11, 96.

Munmun, F, Mohiuddin, O.A., Hoang, V.T., Burow, M.E., Bunnell, B.A., Sola, V.M., Carpentieri, A.R., Witt-Enderby, P.A. The role of MEK1/2 and MEK5 in melatonin-mediated actions on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, bone microarchitecture, biomechanics and bone formation. J Pineal Res, 2022.

Munmun, F. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Monocyte Co-cultures In Methods Molecular Biology, Vol. 2550, Springer Nature Publ. Ralf Jockers and Erika Cecon (Eds): Melatonin, 978-1-0716-2592-7, 509097_1_En, (Chapter 36): 2022.

Abdelmalek, C.M., Hu,Z., Kronenberger, T., Küblbeck, J., Kinnen, F.J.M., Hesse, S.S., Malik, A., Kudolo, M., Niess, R., Gehringer, M., Zender, L., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Zlotos, D.P., Stefan A. Laufer, S.A., Gefitinib-Tamoxifen Hybrid Ligands as Potent Agents against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. J Med Chem, 2022,

Munmun, F., Linden, A., Hanlon, H., Enderby, H. and Witt-Enderby, P. 2021. Study assessing the efficacy of herbal teas on bone health and quality of life in a population with osteopenia: rooibos actions on melatonin and tulsi actions on quality of life. Melatonin Research. 4, 2 (Apr. 2021), 270-298.

Greendale, G.A., Witt-Enderby, P., Arun, A.S., Munmun, F., Crawford, S., Huang, MH, Santoro, N. Melatonin Patterns and Levels During the Human Menstrual Cycle and After Menopause, Journal of the Endocrine Society, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2020, bvaa115,
*This paper was a featured weekly article during the week of October 28,, 2020
**This paper was chosen for the Endocrine Society Thematic Issue on Biological Rhythms 2022. Manuscript selections were guided by Altmetric Attention Scores and Featured Article designations.

Hasan, M., Browne, E., Guarinoni, L., Darveau, T., Hilton, K., and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Novel melatonin, estrogen, and progesterone hormone therapy demonstrates anti-cancer actions in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Breast cancer: Basic and Clinical Research. 2020.

Hasan, M, Marzouk, MA, Adhikari, S, Wright, TD, Miller, BP, Matossian, MD, Elliott, S, Wright, MK, Alzoubi, MS, Collins-Burow, BM, Burow, ME, Holzgrabe, U, Zlotos, D.P., Stratford, RE and Witt-Enderby, PA. Pharmacological, mechanistic and pharmacokinetic assessment of novel melatonin-tamoxifen drug conjugates as breast cancer drugs. Molecular Pharmacology June 20, 2019, mol.119.116202.

This link will provide any interested reader with 100 free electronic reprints:

Dodda, B.R., Bondi, CD, Hasan, M, Clafshenkel, W.P., Gallagher, KM, Kotlarczyk, MP, Sethi, S, Buszko, E, Latimer, J.J., Cline, J.M., Witt-Enderby, PA, Davis, VL. Co-administering Melatonin with an Estradiol-Progesterone Menopausal Hormone Therapy Represses Mammary Cancer Development in a Mouse Model of HER2-positive Breast Cancer. Front. Oncol. | doi: 10.3389/fonc.2019.00525

Dorchak, J.A., Maria, S., Guarinoni, J.S., Duensing, A., Somiari, S., Cavanaugh, J., Deyarmin, B., Hu, H., Iida, J., Shriver, C.D., Witt-Enderby, P.A. The Impact of Hormonal Contraceptives on Breast Cancer Pathology. Hormones and Cancer, 2018.

Bondi, C.D., Kamal, K.M., Johnson, D.A., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Giannetti, V.J. "The effect of melatonin upon post-acute withdrawal among males in a residential treatment program (M-PAWS): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Journal of Addiction Medicine, 2018.

St. Hilaire, M.A., Rahman, S.A., Gooley, J.J., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Lockley, S.W. Relationship between melatonin and bone resorption rhythms in premenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 2018.

Hasan, M., Genovese, S., Fiorito, S., Epifano, F., Witt-Enderby, P.A. Oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids bind to MT1 melatonin receptors and inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. Journal of Natural Products. 2017.

Maria S, Samsonraj, R.M., Munmun, F., Glas, J, Silvestros, M., Mary P. Kotlarczyk, M.P., Rylands, R., Dudakovic, A., van Wijnen, A.J., Enderby, L.T., Lassila, H., Dodda, B., Davis, V.L., Balk, J., Burow, M., Bunnell, B.A., and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Biological Effects of Melatonin on Osteoblast/Osteoclast Co-cultures, Bone and Quality of Life: implications of a role for MT2 melatonin receptors, MEK1/2 and MEK5 in melatonin-mediated osteoblastogenesis. Journal of Pineal Research, 2017.

Maria, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Circadian Regulation of Bone In Circadian Rhythms and Their Impact on Aging. Jazwinski, Belancio and Hill eds., Springer Publishing. 2017. Invited.

Suofu, Y., Li, W., Jean-Alphonse, F.G., Jiao, J., Khatter, N.K., Li, J., Baranov, S.V., Leronni, D., Mihalik, A.C., He, Y., Cecon, E., Wehbi, V., Kim, J., Heath, B.E., Baranova, O.V., Wang, X., Gable, M., Kretz, E., Di Benedetto, G., Lezon, T.R., Ferrando, L., Larkin, T.M., Sullivan, M.L.G., Yablonska, S., Wang, J., Minnigh, M.B., Guillaumet, G., Suzenet, F., Richardson, R.M., Poloyac, S., Stolz, D.B., Jockers, R., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Carlisle, D.L., Vilardaga, J.P., Friedlander, R.M. Dual role of mitochondria in producing melatonin and driving GPCR signaling to block cytochrome c release. PNAS, 2017.

Maria, S., Swanson, M.H., Enderby, L.T., D'Amico, F., Enderby, B., Samsonraj, R.M., Dudakovic, A., van Wijnen, A.J., Witt-Enderby, P.A. Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures. Aging, 9 (1): 256-285, 2017.

Bondi, C.D., Khairnar R, Kamal K.M., Witt-Enderby P. An Early Development Budget Impact Model for the use of Melatonin in the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis. Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics 4: 132, 2015, doi: 10.4172/2167- 065X.1000132

Zlotos, D.P., Riad, N.M., Osman, M.B.T., Dodda, B., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Novel difluoroacetamide analogues of agomelatine and melatonin: probing the melatonin receptors for MT1-selectivity. MedChemComm, 2015, doi: 10.1039/c5md00190k

Journé, A-S , Habib, S.A.M., Dodda, B.R., Morcos, M.N.F, Sadek, M.S. Sarah A.A. Tadros, S.A.A., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Jockers, R., Zlotos, D.P. N1-Linked Melatonin Dimers as Bivalent Ligands Targeting Dimeric Melatonin Receptors. Medicinal Chemistry Communications, 5(6): 792-796, 2014.

Bondi, C.D., Alonso-Gonzalez, C., Clafshenkel, W.P., Kotlarczyk, M.P, Dodda, B.R., Sanchez-Barcelo, E., Davis, V. L., Witt-Enderby, P.A.. The Effect of Estradiol, Progesterone, and Melatonin on Estrous Cycling and Ovarian Aromatase Expression in Intact Female Mice. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 175: 80-85, 2014.

Kirker, R.M., Gallagher, K.M., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Davis, V.L. High affinity nuclear and nongenomic estradiol binding sites in the human and mouse lens. Exp Eye Res 112: 1-10, 2013

Witt-Enderby, P.A., Slater, J.P., Johnson, N.A., Bondi, C.D., Dodda, B. R., Kotlarczyk, M.P., Clafshenkel, W.P., Sethi, S, Higginbotham, S, Rutkowski, J. L., Gallagher, K.M., and Davis,V.L. Effects on Bone by the Light/Dark Cycle and Chronic Treatment with Melatonin and/or Hormone Replacement Therapy in Intact Female Mice. J Pineal Res, 53(4):374-384, 2012.

Clafshenkel, W.P., King, T.L., Kotlarczyk,M.P., Cline, J.M., Foster, W.G.,Davis, V.L. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.. Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) Juice Augments Mammary Gland Differentiation and Reduces Mammary Tumor Growth in Mice Expressing the Unactivated c-erbB Transgene. Evidence-Based Comp Alt Med, 2012.

Clafshenkel, W.P., Rutkowski, J.L., Palchesko, R.N., Romeo, J.D., McGowan, K.A., Gawalt,E.S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.. A Novel Calcium Aluminate-Melatonin Scaffold Enhances Bone Regeneration within a Calvarial Defect. J Pineal Res, 2012.

Kotlarczyk, MP, Lassila, HC, O'Neil, CK, D'Amico, F, Enderby, LT, Witt-Enderby, PA, and Balk, JL. Melatonin Osteoporosis Prevention Study (MOPS): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examining the effects of melatonin on bone health and quality of life in perimenopausal women. J Pineal Res. 2012, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2011.00956.x

Clinical trial identifier NCT01152580:

Markl, C., Clafshenkel, W.P., Attia, M.I., Sethi, S., Witt-Enderby, P.A. and .Zlotos, D.P.: N-acetyl-5-arylalkoxytryptamine analogs: probing the melatonin receptors towards MT1-selectivity. Arch Pharm Chem Life Sci, 344: 666-674, 2011.

Heckman, D, Attia, M.I.,Benham, M.A.M., Mohsen, A.M.Y., Markl, C., Julius, J.J., Sethi, S., Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Zlotos, D.P: 2-[(1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-yl)methyl]-melatonin-a novel MT2-selective melatonin receptor antagonist. Med Chem Commun, 2: 991-994, 2011.

Sethi, S., Radio, N.M., Kotlarczyk, M.P., Chen, C.T., Wei, Y.H. , Jockers, R. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.. Determination of the minimal melatonin exposure required to induce osteoblast differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cells and these effects on downstream signaling pathways. J Pineal Res, 49: 222-238, 2010.

Markl, C., Attia, M.I., Julius, J., Sethi, S., and Witt-Enderby, P.A..: Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrazino [1,2-a]indole and 2-[(phenylmethylamino)methyl]-1H-indole analogues as novel melatonergic ligands. Bioorg Med Chem, 17: 4583-4594, 2009.

Jarzynka, M.J., Passey, D.K., Johnson, D.A., Konduru, N., Fitz, N., Radio, N.M., Rasenick, M., Benloucif, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Microtubules Modulate Melatonin Receptors Involved in Phase-shifting Circadian Activity Rhythms: In vitro and in vivo evidence, J Pineal Res, 46 (2): 161-171, 2009.

Zlotos, D.P., Attia, M.I., Julius, J., Sethi, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.: 2-[(2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-1-yl)methyl]-melatonin Analogues: A novel class of MT2-selective melatonin receptor antagonists. J Med Chem, 52 (3): 826-833, 2009.

Bondi, C.D., McKeon, R.M., Bennett, J.M., Ignatius, P.F., Brydon, L, Jockers, R., Melan, M.A., and Witt-Enderby, P.A.: MT1 melatonin receptor internalization underlies melatonin-induced morphologic changes in Chinese hamster ovary cells and these processes are dependent on Gi proteins, MEK 1/2 and microtubule modulation. J Pineal Res 44 (3): 288-298, 2008.

Attia, M.I. Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Julius, J.: Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of pentacyclic 6a,7-dihydrodiindole and 2,3-dihydrodiindole derivatives as novel melatoninergic ligands. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 16: 7654-7661, 2008.

Sethi, S., Adams, W., Pollock, J. and Witt-Enderby, P.A.: C-terminal Domains within Human MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors are Involved in Internalization Processes. J Pineal Res, 45 (2): 212-218, 2008.

Attia, M.I., Julius, J., Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Zlotos, D.P.: Synthesis, NMR Conformational Analysis and Pharmacological Evaluation of 6,7, 13,14-tetrahydro-7aH-cyclobuta[2',3']indolo [2',1':2,3] pyrimido [1,2-a]indole analogs as potential melatonin receptor ligands, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 5:2129-2137, 2007.

Attia, M.I., Julius, J,. Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Zlotos, D.P.: Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of 13a, 14-dihydro-6H, 13H-pyrazino[1,2-a;4,5-a']diindole analogs as potential melatonin receptor ligands, Tetrahedron, 63: 754-760, 2007.

Jarzynka MJ., Passey D.K., Ignatius, P. F., Melan, M. A., Radio N. M., Jockers, R, Rasenick, M. M., Brydon, L. and Witt-Enderby. P. A.. Modulation of Melatonin Receptors and G-protein Function by Microtubules Journal of Pineal Research 41: 324-336, 2006.

Radio, N.M., Doctor, J.S., and Witt-Enderby, P.A.: Melatonin Enhances Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Differentiating Human Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Grown in Osteogenic Medium via MT2 Melatonin Receptors and the MEK/ERK (1/2) Signaling Cascade, Journal of Pineal Research 40 (4):332-342, 2006.

08/01/20-07/31/25, Strength training effects on circadian and activity rhythms, muscle and bone health and quality of life in young healthy population: Muscle:Time Study. Jaquish Biomedicals, PI.

01/01/20-12/31/24, "Assessing the Efficacy of Melatonin and Osteogenic Loading on Bone Health in an Osteopenic Population: MelaOstrong Study". OsteoStrongTM. PI.

04/03/20-04/04/20, Mentoring Network Travel Award, ASPET Mentoring Network: Coaching for Career Development American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Awarded to my doctoral student, Mahmud Hasan.

07/01/16-06/30/20, "The Role of MEK5 in Melatonin-induced Osteoblast and Osteoclast Differentiation". NIHAR068603. PI.

05/01/13 - 04/30/14, "Budget Impact Analysis of Melatonin in the Prevention or Treatment of Osteoporosis", Translational Research Grant, Duquesne University. co-PI.

05/01/13 - 04/30/15, "Novel chrono-synergistic use of combination melatonin and strontium with nutritional co-factors for the treatment of osteopenia-osteoporosis and improvements in quality of life (QOL)." Translational Research Grant, Duquesne University. PI.

Clinical Trials registration number: NCT01870115 "Melatonin micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS)""

04/16/12 - 04/15/13, "Assessing and Characterizing the Binding Characteristics for KB Small Molecules to Rat Forebrain Mitochondria and Mitochondria from Cells in Culture." Knopp Biosciences, LLC. PI.

01/01/08 - 12/31/11, "The Effect of Melatonin on Bone Turnover Markers in Peri-menopausal Women", Translational Research Grant, Duquesne University. PI.

01/01/08 - 12/31/10, "Development of a Bone-Regenerative Scaffold," Pennsylvania Department of Health. PI.

05/01/07 - 04/30/08, "Pharmacological Evaluation of 13a, 14 dihydro-6H-pyrazino[1,2-a;4,5-a']diindole Analogs as Melatonin Receptor Ligands Using Competition Binding Analysis and Recombinant Cell Lines Expressing the Human MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors" American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education.

07/01/06 - 04/30/09, "The Effect of Melatonin's Efficacy at Reducing Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer Risk", Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, PI.

"Melatonin: what women over 40 should know". November, 2018:

"Understanding Melatonin and Improving Sleep". Podcasts with Nina Coslov, Founder of June, 2019.
Part 1:
Part 2:
Part 3:

"Pharmacy professor researching whether herbal tea can slow bone loss" by Pittsburgh Catholic Newspaper, October 12, 2018. 

"DU prof looks at if tea slows bone loss" by Kailey Love | Managing Editor, August 30, 2018.

"Pharmacy Professor Researching Whether Herbal Tea Can Slow Bone Loss" DU Times, August 8, 2018.

"Beyond sleep: exploring the ways in which melatonin communicates with cells" ResearchFeatures, January 31, 2018.

"Groundbreaking Research on Melatonin with Dr. Paula Witt-Enderby" by John Douillard. LifeSpa Podcast, June 5, 2017.

"Health notes: Bone-loss study seeks 20 women volunteers" Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 3, 2014 9:32 PM. Read more:

"Research finds better sleep makes for stronger bones" by Haldan Kirsch. 90.5 WESA Pittsburgh's NPR News Station, December 16, 2013.

"Circadian rhythms may be in our bones, not just our heads" by Karen Ferrick-Roman Duquesne University Campus Times December 11, 2013. Circadian Rhythms May Be in Our Bones, Not Just Our Heads

"Clinical Trial at Duquesne University to Examine Natural Bone Treatment" by Karen Ferrick-Roman Duquesne University Campus Times July 30th, 2013.

"Melatonin Chronosynergy, Women and Aging: Expert Interview with Paula Witt-Enderby, PhD and Judith Balk, MPH, MD by Mark Swanson, ND. Naturopathic Doctor News and Review, February 14, 2012.

"Professor's Clinical Trial Indicates Melatonin's Positive Effects on Bones", February 1, 2012.

"Duquesne Study Aims to Curb Bone Loss" by Luis Fabregas, Monday, March 23, 2009

"The Cure: Western Pa. Has Become an Important Player in the Fight to Stop Cancer" by Allison M. Heinrichs. Monday, May 7, 2007. (also in video)

"Many Paths to Choose: Careers in Cancer Research" by Jule Clayton, Science, April 6, 2007.


2019-2021, Outstanding Advisor of the Year, Kappa Epsilon Fraternity

2019-Nominated for Outstanding Student Organization Advisor, Duquesne University

2014-Outstanding Student Organization Advisor of the Year, Duquesne University

2008, Advisor of the Year, Kappa Epsilon, Inc, Professional Pharmacy Fraternity

2008, Faculty Award for Sustained Excellence in Teaching, Research and Service, School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University

2007, Presidential Award for Excellence in Service to the Mission, Duquesne University. 

2007, Excellence in Service Award, School of Pharmacy

2003, Teacher of the Year, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (124 professors awarded nationwide)

2003, Voted Best Teacher in the School of Pharmacy (TOPs Award)

2003, Excellence in Service Award, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University School of Pharmacy.

2000,2001,2002 National Chain of Pharmacy Association Members' Favorite Professor

1999, 2000, 2001,2002 Nominated Teacher of the Year by Duquesne's Chapter of Omicron Delta Kappa National Leadership Honor Society

Leadership Positions

2021-2025, Advisor, Pharmacy Class of 2025

January 2014-December 2014, President, American Association for University Professors

2010-January 2014, Vice President, American Association for University Professors

2006-2010, President of the Faculty Senate, Duquesne University

2004-2006, Acting President of the Faculty Senate, Duquesne University

2005-2011, Advisor, Pharmacy Class of 2011

Honor Societies

2006-present, Phi Lambda Sigma Pharmacy Leadership Society

2010-present, Golden Key International Honour Society (Membership, by invitation only, is given to faculty who have demonstrated superior commitment and scholarship.)

2009-2010, Fellow, Academic Leadership Development Program, Duquesne University Office of the Provost

2008-present, The Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi (Membership, by invitation only, is given to faculty who have achieved scholarly distinction.)

1996-present, Rho Chi Pharmacy Honor Society

Advisory and Editorial Boards

2023-present, Associate Editor, Journal of Pineal Research:

2020-present, National Ayurvedic Medical Association Ethics Board (NAMACB)

2018-present, Science Advisor, Women Living Better Menopause Resource 

2018-present, Editoral Board, Melatonin Research Journal

2011-present, Editorial Board, Journal of Oral Implantology

2012-present, Editorial Board, Journal of Pineal Research

Munmun, F., Huang, V., Burow, M., Bunnell, B., and Witt-Enderby, P.A., Paula Witt-Enderby. The role of MEK1/2 and MEK5 on melatonin-mediated effects on bone microarchitecture, mechanical strength, osteogenic and metabolic protein expression in intact female Balb(c) mice. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, September 28-October 1, 2018.

Hasan, M., Marzouk, M.A., Adhikari, S., Wright, T.D., Miller, B P., Peckich, B., Yingling, S., Stratford, R.E., Zlotos, D.P., Cavanaugh, J.E., and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Effects of different melatonin-tamoxifen hybrid ligands on breast cancer. University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Retreat, University of Pittsburgh, Greensburg, PA, June 20-22, 2018.

Peacock, S.J., Middleton, K.M., Cavanaugh, J., Wright, T., Burow, M., Barnes, V., Munmun, F., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Effects of MEK1/2 and MEK5 pathway disruption on skeletal phenotypes in intact female SCID mice. Experimental Biology, San Diego, CA, April 21-25, 2018.

Mehta, B., Witt-Enderby, P.A. Cinnamon (Twak): a coumarin derivative, melatonin derivative, anti-oxidant or all the above? National Ayurvedic Medical Association. Plano, TX, April 20-22, 2018.

Hasan, M., Marzouk, M.A., Adhikari, S., Wright, T.D., Miller, B.P., Peckich, B., Yingling, S., Stratford, R.E., Zlotos, D.P., Cavanaugh, J.E., Witt-Enderby, P.A. Melatonin-tamoxifen hybrid ligands and their effects on breast cancer. American Association for Cancer Research, Chicago, IL., April 14-18, 2018.

Hasan, M., Marzouk, M.A., Adhikari, S., Wright, T.D., Miller, B P., Peckich, B., Yingling, S., Stratford, R.E., Zlotos, D.P., Cavanaugh, J.E., and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Assessing the Efficacy of melatonin-tamoxifen hybrid ligands on brast cancer. Graduate School Research Symposium, Duquesne University, March, 2018

Munmun, F., Glas, J., Davis, V.L. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Effect of a novel melatonin hormone therapy (HT) on bone microarchitecture and metabolic proteins in a perimenopausal mouse model. Graduate School Research Symposium, Duquesne University, March, 2018

Wright, T.D., Hasan, M., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Cavanaugh, J.E. Dual inhibition of the PI3k/Akt/mTOR and MEK5/ERK5 pathways in tamoxifen resistant breast cancer. American Association for Cancer Research, Washington, D.C., April 1-5, 2017.

Hasan, M., Marzouk, M.A., Miller, B., Zlotos, D., Witt-Enderby P.A. Effects of different melatonin-tamoxifen hybrid ligands on breast cancer. University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Retreat, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, June 23, 2017.

Maria, S., Munmun, F., Samsonraj, R., Dudakovik, A., van Wijnen, A., Bunnell, B., Burow, M., Witt-Enderby, P.A. Melatonin Increases Osteoblast Differentiation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue: implications for a role of MT2 melatonin receptors, MEK1/2, MEK5 and PPAR American Association for Bone and Mineral Research, Denver, CO., September 8-11, 2017.

Maria, S., Enderby, L., Lassila, H., O'Neil, C, Swanson, M. Witt-Enderby, P.A. Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Atlanta, GA. September 16-19, 2016.

Zlotos, D.P., Marzouk, M.A., Hasan, M., Darveau, T., Guarinini, L., Browne, E., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Melatonin-Tamoxifen Hybrid Ligand as Potent Agent against Breast Cancer. The Annual Meeting of the German Pharmaceutical Society, Munich, Germany, October 4-6, 2016

Dorchak, J.A., Guarinoni, J.L., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Somiari, S., Shriver, C.D. Formulation specific hormonal contraceptives and breast cancer subtyping: a retrospective study, American Society of Health Systems Pharmacists (ASHP). Midyear Conference, Las Vegas, NV, December 3-8, 2016

Toth, E.E., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Nowacki, M. Working on the Margins: Preparing Health Professionals for their Public Education Role 39th Annual Conference of the Eastern Educational Research Association, Hilton Head Island, February 17-20, 2016.

Toth, E.E., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Making the World a Better Place by Educating the Public with Equity, Justice and Respect. National Association for Research in Science Teaching Conference, Baltimore, MD. 2016

"Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): Clinical and Molecular Findings", July 19-24, 2015. FASEB Summer Research Conference: Melatonin Biology: Actions and Therapeutics, Lisbon, Portugal. (Session Chair and Presenter)

"Use of Melatonin to Improve Bone Health in Perimenopausal Woman Using Clinical and Basic Science Approaches". March 9, 2015, Bone and Mineral Research Seminar Series, Center for Bone and Mineral Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Toth, E.E., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Fama, J.R. College Students' Perspectives and Reasoning about Over-The-Counter and Internal Health Monitoring Devices. National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Chicago, IL (April 11 - April 14, 2015).

"Melatonin-based Strategies to Treating Bone Disease: focus on melatonin-mediated effects on bone cells using a novel co-culture system". December 2-3, 2014, OMICS Group 2nd International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy, San Francisco, CA.

Maria, S., Witt-Enderby, P.A. Mechanisms Underlying the Effect of Melatonin on Bone. American Association of Pharmaceutical Sciences (AAPS), San Diego, CA, November 2-6, 2014.

Maria, S. Swanson, M., Lassila, M., O'Neil, C., Witt-Enderby, P.A. Mechanisms Underlying the Effect of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 and Vitamin K2 on Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Peripheral Blood Monocytes Grown as Co-cultures. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Houston, TX, September, 2014.

Bondi, C.D., Khairnar, R.R., Witt-Enderby, P., Kamal, K.M. An Early Development Budget Impact Model for the use of Melatonin in the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Houston, TX, September, 2014.

"Melatonin and Melatonin Receptors in the Differentiation of Stem Cells", June 23-28, 2013, Melatonin Receptors and Therapeutics FASEB Summer Research Conference, Niagara Falls, NY.

St. Hilaire, M.A. Flynn-Evans, E.E., Higginbotham, S., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Lockley, S.W.
Analysis of 48-hr profiles of melatonin and the bone resorption marker amino-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of collagen I (NTx) in blind women with and without light perception. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Baltimore, MD, 2013.

"The Effects of a Novel Estrogen (E), Progesterone (P) and Melatonin (M) Replacement Therapy (EPMRT) on HER2+/neu Mammary Cancer Development, Growth and Progression and Potential Mechanisms Underlying its Protective Actions." June 28, 2012, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA.

"Mechanisms Underlying Melatonin-induced Cellular Differentiation and its Application to Assessing Melatonin's Potency to Shift Circadian Activity Rhythms in Rats." November 2, 2011, Moorehouse School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Atlanta, GA.

"Actions and Therapeutics Melatonin Receptors III: Regulation of Signaling and Neurogensesis." June 26-30, 2011, FASEB Summer Research Conference, Snowmass, CO.

"From Cell Biology to Translational Research: the application of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, to bone formation and to the prevention of osteoporosis." October 12, 2010, Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University.

Toth, E.E., Espenshade, J. and Witt-Enderby, P.A., Pharmacy Students, Analysis of Medical Advertisements: A Method to Improve Instructional Practice Based on Research and Learning. National Association for Research in Science Teaching , March 24, 2010, Philadelphia, PA.

"Melatonin and Hormone Replacement Therapy in a Preclinical Model of Mammary Cancer", February 7-12, 2010, Gordon Research Conference, Pineal Cell Biology, Galveston, TX

"The Effects of and Mechanisms Underlying Melatonin-induced Cellular Differentiation", February 22, 2008, Department of Biology, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA.

"Melatonin Signaling and Cellular Differentiation: potential targets for the prevention of osteoporosis and breast cancer", August 10-15, 2008, Melatonin Receptors and Therapeutics, FASEB Summer Research Conference, Snowmass, CO.

Witt-Enderby, P.A., Julius, J, Attia, M.I., and Zlotos, D.P. The Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel and High-Affinity Melatonin Receptor Ligands. Experimental Biology Abstract # 724.9, 2008.

Sethi, S. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Critical Time Periods of Melatonin Exposure Enhance Osteoblast Differentiation From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Experimental Biology, Abstract # 782.12, 2008.

Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Latimer, J.J. Melatonin Effects on Disease-free and Stage III Breast Tumor Cultures. University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Scientific Retreat, June 21-22, 2007.

Kirker, R.M., Rea, S.L., Witt-Enderby, P.A., and Davis, V.L. Identification of Estrogen-Regulated Genes in the Lens Using ERd3 Transgenic Mouse Model with Inducible Cataracts. US-Japan Cooperative Cataract Research Group Meeting, Kailua-Kona, HI, Dec 2007.

"Melatonin Effects on Cellular Differentiation: the potential involvement of stem cells", May 29, 2007, University of Pittsburgh, Center for Environmental Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA.

"The Pharmacology of Pain Management", November 9, 2006, Ohio Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Conference, Columbus, OH.

"Panel Presentation on Proposal for Blackboard User Group" March 5, 2007, Pittsburgh Blackboard Users Conference, Duquesne University.

Sethi, S., Radio, N, Jockers, R., Adams, W. and Witt-Enderby, P.A. Scaffolds Between MT2 Melatonin Receptors, Gi, Beta Arrestin, MEK and ERK Form in Differentiating Bone Stem Cells and These Processes Require Internalization; domains found to exist in the C-tail of the MT2 receptor. Experimental Biology, 2007.

"Signaling Mechansims Underlying Melatonin-induced Cellular Differentiation", 2006 Melatonin Receptor Symposium, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, September 29, 2006.

"The Pharmacology of Pain Management with an Emphasis on Neuropathic Pain", July 15, 2006, HospiceCare 2020 Conference, ProCare/Hospice Care, Atlanta, GA.

"Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Melatonin's Effects on Cellular Differentiation", June 15, 2006, Center for Environmental Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Oakland, PA.

"Use of Personal Response System (PRS) Keypads in the Classroom", Turning Point Technologies Symposium, March, 2006, Duquesne University.