Amy Phelps

Associate Professor of Practice in Statistics
Palumbo Donahue School of Business
Economics

830 Rockwell Hall
Phone: 412.396.6271
phelpsa@duq.edu

Education:

Ph.D. School of Public Health, Pittsburgh,PA, Biostatistics, 1997 M.A.S. Arts and Sciences, Columbus, OH, Statistics, 1985 M.S. Arts and Sciences, Athens, OH, Physiology, 1983 B.A.(Hons) Arts and Sciences, Athens, OH, Mathematics, 1981
Biography

Amy Phelps is an Assistant Professor of Business Statistics in the Economics and Statistics division at the AJ Palumbo Undergraduate School of Business Administration at Duquesne University. Professor Phelps coordinates the multi-section two-semester sequence of Business Analytics required by all undergraduate business majors. She incorporates service learning regularly in the instruction of her business analytics classes and is consistently nominated for the school's annual Consol teaching award.

Professor Phelps' strives to improve the instruction of Business Analytics by seeking pedagogy that gives her students practical skills and real-life applications of statistics. This is achieved through the use of current technology in statistical software available and her time devoted to service learning allowing her students to see first-hand applications of statistics while helping local non-profit organizations assess their own programs.

Professor Phelps' research background is specialized in Biostatistics. She consults with the anesthesiology department at Magee Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh and therefore is widely published in journals that include International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, Journal of Clinical Anesthesia and The Journal of Pain. A recent 2010 article in the International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia was selected for Faculty of 1000 Medicine (www.f1000medicine.com).

Publications

Articles in Journals

McGovern, R. P., Martin, R. L., Phelps, A. L., Kivlan, B. R., Nickel, B., John J Christoforetti, AHN (2020). Conservative management acutely improves functional movement and clinical outcomes in patients with pre-arthritic hip pain. Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery, 1-8, doi: 10.1093/jhps/hnz075.

McGovern, R., Martin, R., Kivlan, B., Phelps, A., & Christoforetti, J. (2019). Evidence for Inter-Rater Reliability and Validity of Functional Performance Testing in the Evaluation of Non-Arthritic Hip Pain. Journal of Athletic Training, 54 (2) ., doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-33-18.

Polaski, A. M., Phelps, A. L., Kostek, M. C., Szucs, K. A., & Kolber, B. J. (2019). Exercise-induced hypoalgesia: A meta-analysis of exercise dosing for the treatment of chronic pain. PLOS ONE, 14 (1) , 1-29, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210418.

Polaski, A. M., Phelps, A. L., Szucs, K. A., Ramsey, A. M., Kostek, M. C., Benedict J. Kolber (2019). The dosing of aerobic exercise therapy on experimentally-induced pain in healthy female participants. Scientific Reports.

Hannah, D. C., Scibek, J., Carcia, C. R., & Phelps, A. L. (2018). Reliability and Validity of a 1-Person Technique to Measure Humeral Torsion Using Ultrasound. Journal of Athletic Training, 53 (6) , 590-596, doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-213-17.

Phelps, A. L. & Szabat, K. (2017). The Current Landscape of Teaching Analytics to Business Students at Institutions of Higher Education: American Statistician.

Phelps, A.L., Attaallah, A. F., Elzamzamy, O. M., Ranganthan, P., & Vallejo, M. C. (in press, 2016). Improving Operating Room Efficiency through Electronic Medical Record Quality Improvement Analysis. Journal of Perioperative Practice, 26 (5), 106-108.

Phelps, A.L., Provenzano, David A. Provenzano A., Deer, T., Drennen, Z. C., Thomson, S., Salim M. Hayek, Samer Narouze, Maunak V. Rana, Tyler W. Watson, Asokumar Buvanendran (2016). An International Survey to Understand Infection Control Practices for Spinal Cord Stimulation. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface, 19 (1)., doi: 10.1111/ner.12356.

Phelps, A.L., Kivlan, B. R., Carcia, C. R., Clemente, F. R., & Martin, R. L. (2015). The effect of Astym ® Therapy on muscle strength: a blinded, randomized, clinically controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 16 (325)., doi: 10.1186/s12891-015-0778-9.

Phelps, A.L., Cacolice,, P. A., Carcia, C. R., & Scibek, J. S. (2015). The Use of Functional Tests to Predict Sagittal Plane Knee Kinematics in NCAA-D1 Female Athletes. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 10 (4), 493-504.

Phelps, A.L., Ranganathan, P., Golfeiz, C., Singh, S., Shnol, H., Paul N, Attaallah AF, & Vallejo MC. (2014). Chronic headache and backache are long-term sequelae of unintentional dural puncture in the obstetric population. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia.

Phelps, A.L., Chamsy, D. J., Louie, M. Y., Lum, D. A., & Mansuria, Suketu M. MANSURIA M. (2014). Clinical utility of postoperative hemoglobin level testing following total laparoscopic hysterectomy. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 211 (3), 224.e1-7.

Phelps, A. L. & Spangler, W. E. (2013). Customized versus Standardized Exams for Learning Outcomes Assessment in an Undergraduate Business Program. American Journal of Business Education, 6 (5), 521-530.

Phelps, A.L., Kivlan, B. R., Carcia, C. R., Clemente, F. R., & Martin, R. L. (2013). Functional Performance Testing For Hip Dysfunction in Dancers. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 8 (4).

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Cobb, B. T., Steen, T. L., & Singh, S. (2013). Maternal Outcomes in Women Supplemented with a High Protein Drink in Labour. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 53 (4), 369-374.

Phelps, A.L., Singh, S., Wirth, K., Badve, M., Shah, T., Neera Sah and Manuel C. Vallejo (2013). Epidural Catheter Placement in Morbidly Obese Parturients with the Use of an Epidural Depth Equation Prior to Ultrasound Visualization. Scientific World Journal, 2013 (Article ID 695209), 6 pages.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Best, M. W., O'Donnell, J. M., Sah, N., Richard P. Kidwell and John P. Williams (2012). Perioperative Dental Injury at a Tertiary Care Health System: An Eight Year Audit of 816,690 Anesthetics. Journal of Healthcare Risk Management, 31 (3), 25-32.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M., Ibinson, J., & Barnes, L. (2012). Aprepitant Plus Ondansetron Compared to Ondansetron Alone in Reducing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Ambulatory Patients Undergoing Plastic Surgery. Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 129 (2), 519-526.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Steen, T. L., Cobb, B. T., Pomerantz, J. M., Steven L. Orebaugh and Jacques E. Chelly (2012). Efficacy of the Bilateral Ilioinguinal-Iliohypogastric Block with Intrathecal Morphine for Postoperative Cesarean Delivery Analgesia. Scientific World Journal, 2012 (107316), 1-6.

Phelps, A. L. (2012). Stepping from service-learning to SERVICE-LEARNING pedagogy. Journal of Statistics Education, 20 (3).

Phelps, A.L., Dusi, J., Borello-France, D., George, S., & Somers, D. (2012). Assessing physical therapy outcomes for women with urinary incontinence. Journal of Women's Health Physical Therapy, 36, 78-89.

Phelps, A.L. (2011). The Influence of Heel Height on Sagittal Plane Knee Kinematics during Landing Tasks in Recreationally Active Collegiate Females. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 6 (3), 186-198.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M., Singh, S., Orebaugh, S., & Sah, N. (2010). Ultrasound Decreases the Failed Labor Epidural Rate in Resident Trainees. International Journal of Obstetrics Anesthesia, 19(4).

Phelps, A.L., Chaudry, S., Singh, S., & Vallejo, M. (2009). A 5-Year Audit of Accidental Dural Punctures, Postdural Puncture Headaches, and Failed Regional Anesthetics at a Tertiary-Care Medical Center. Scientific World Journal, 1 (9), 715-722.

Phelps, A.L., Mantha, V., Vallejo, M., & Ramesh, V. (2008). Studying Student Benefits of Assigning a Service Learning Project Compared to a Traditional Final Project in a Business Statistics Class. International Journal of Obstetrics Anesthesia, 17 (2), 123-129.

Phelps, A.L., Mantha, V., Vallejo, M., & Ramesh, V. (2008). The Incidence of Maternal Fever during Labor is Less with Intermittent than with Continuous Epidural Analgesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Obstetrics Anesthesia, 17 (2), 123-129.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M., Ramesh, V., & Sah, N. (2007). Epidural Labor Analgesia: Continuous Infusion vs Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia with Background Infusion vs without a Background Infusion. The Journal of Pain, 8 (12), 970-975.

Phelps, A.L., Sah, N., Vallejo, M., Finegold, H., & Mandell, G. (2007). Efficacy of Ropivacaine, Bupivacaine, and Levobupivacaine for Labor Epidural Analgesia. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 19 (3), 214-217.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M., Sah, N., ODonnell, J., & Romeo, J. (2007). Desflurane vs. sevoflurane for laparoscopic gastroplasy in morbidly obese patients. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 19 (1), 3-8.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M., Sah, N., Romeo, R., & Falk, J. (2006). Preemptive Analgesia with Bupicacaine for Segmental Masectomy. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 31 (3), 227-232.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M., Shepherd, C., Golebiewski, K., & Kaul, B. (2005). Nitrous Oxide Anxiolysis for Elective Cesarean Section. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, (17), 543-548.

Phelps, A.L., Kaul, B., Vallejo, M., Ramanathan, S., & Mandell, G. (2004). Induction of Labor with Oxytocin Increases Cesarean Section Rate as Compared to Oxytocin for Augmentation of Labor in Nulliparous Parturients Controlled for Lumbar Epidural Analgesia. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 16 (6).

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M., Kaul, B., Adler, L., & Craven, C. (2001). Chorioamnionitis, Not Epidural Analgesia, is Associated with Maternal Fever During Labor. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 28 (11), 1122-1126.

Phelps, A.L. & Weissfeld, L. (1997). A Comparison of Dependence Estimators in Bivariate Copula Models. Communications in Statistics-Simulation and Computation, 26 (4), 1583-1597.

Phelps, A.L., Fine, M., Singer, D., Hanusa, B., & Kapoor, W. (1993). Differences in Length of Hospital Stay in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Prospective Four-Hospital Study. Medical Care, 31 (4), 3771-380.

Phelps, A.L., Fine, M., Hanusa, B., Stone, R., & Kapoor, W. (1990). Heparin in the Initial Treatment of Venous Thrombosis (II). New England Journal of Medicine, 323 (12), 830.

Phelps (Luginbuhl), A., Dudley, G., & Staron, R. (1984). Fiber Type Changes in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Intense Interval Training. Histochemistry.

Phelps, (Luginbuhl), A.J., Dudley, G. A., Staron, R. S., Murray, T. F., & Hagerman, F. C., (1983). Muscle Fiber Composition and Blood Ammonia Levels after Intense Exercise in Humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 54 (2), 582-586.

Articles in Proceedings

Phelps, A. L. (2016). Measured Community Engagement Outcomes Increases in a Business Statistics Class. Joint Statistical Meetings, Chicago, Illinois.

Phelps, A. L. (2014). Is it 'Real' and is it Really working? Joint Statistical Meetings.

Phelps, A.L., Heisler & J. W. (2010). A Survey Analysis of the Relationships between Economic News and Consumer Behavior. Midwest Decision Science Institute Annual Conference, 38 (Global Supply Chain), University of Toledo: Toledo, Ohio: Midwest Decision Science Institute, 651-658.

Phelps, A.L., Singh, S., Vallejo, M. C., Kaul, B., & Romeo, M. C. (2009). Prediction of epidural depth before labor epidural placement-A Normogram. Society for Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology, 2009 Abstr (A-117), 41st Annual Meeting, 2009 Abstracts, A-117, p104.: , 104.

Phelps, A. L. (2009). Statistical Literacy and Attitudes over two semesters of required Business Statistics. Joint Statistical Meetings, JSM09 Abst, Washington, DC.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Singh, S., Mantha, V., Dalby, P. L., & Ryan C. Romeo (in press, 2009). Ultrasound Increases the Labor Epidural Placement Success Rate in Resident Trainees. Society for Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology, 2009 Abstr (A-260), Washington, D.C., 184.

Phelps, A. L., Sharpe, N. R., Roback, P., & Walters, B. (2008). Teaching through Service Learning (SL) Getting Statistics OUT of the classroom while Enhancing Learning. Joint Statistical Meetings, JSM08 Abst, Denver, CO.

Phelps, A.L., Shagufta, C., Chavez, J., Kaul, B., & Waters, J. (2008). An Audit of Wet-taps, Postdural Puncture Headaches and Failed Regional Anesthetics at a Tertiary Care Medical Center. Society for Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology.

Phelps, A.L., Shagufta, C., Mantha, V., Dalby, P., Romeo, R., & Vallejo, M. (2008). Longitudinal vs. Transverse View to Determine Actual Clinical Depth for Labor Epidural Placement using the Sonosite Micromaxx Ultrasound System. Society for Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology.

Phelps, A.L. (2007). To Service Learn (SL) or not to Service Learn? Joint Statistical Meetings, Salt Lake City, Nevada.

Phelps, A.L. & Dostillio, L. (2007). Meeting and Exceeding the GAISE Standards for Introductory Statistical Instruction through Service-Learning: A Comparative Study in Assigning Undergraduate Statistics Projects. International Research Conference on Service-Learning and Community Engagement, Salt Lake City, Nevada.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M., Sah, N., Romero, R., & Kaul, B. (2005). Preemptive Analgesia with Bupivacaine for Segmental Masectomy under General Anesthesia. Anesthesiology, (A-971), 103.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Ghuloum, F. M., Mowry, K. W., & Suzuki, J. B. (2004). C-Reactive Protein as a Marker for Periodontitis and Preterm Labor. Journal of Dental Research (83 Supp 1), A-3747.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Miller, J., Golebiewski, K., Kaul, B., Ramanathan S, Suzuki J (2003). The Association of Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum with Preterm Labor. Journal of Dental Research (82 Special Issue A), A-886.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Kaul, B., Mandell, G., & Ramanathan, S. (2003). Oral-Umbilical-Placental Bacteremia and Preterm Labor. Anesthesiology (97).

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Famili, P., Suzuki, J., & Ramanathan, S. (2002). Periodontitis and Labor Outcome at Term. Journal of Dental Research (81 Special Issue A), A-230.

Phelps, A.L., Suzuki, J., Vallejo, M. C., Famili, P., & Ramanathan, S. (2002). Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in Term Parturients. Journal of Dental Research (81 Special Issue A), A-231.

Phelps, A.L., Sindhi, R., & Daugherty, T. (2002). Stimulated human lymphocyte responses (sLR) suggest novel effects of the RAD001+Tacrolimus combination on cytokine and costimulatory targets. Eighth Congress International Liver Transplantation Society.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Daftary, A., Riegel, A. R., Kaul, B., Mandell G, Ramanathan S (2002). Is periodontitis associated with preterm labor, preterm low birth weight, and preeclampsia? Anesthesiology (April Supplement), P-95.

Paper Presentations

Phelps, A. L., McGee, M., Hicks, J., Anderson, J., & Aakre, J. (2019). Cheating Lessons: Learning from Academic Dishonesty. Joint Statistical Meetings, Denver, Colorado.

Phelps, A. L., Wood, B., Eakin, M., Stephens, M., & Recck, G. (2018). GAISEing into Introductory Service Courses in Light of Analytics/Data Science. Joint Statistical Meetings, Vancouver, Canada.

Hannah, D. C., Scibek, J. S., Carcia, C. R., & Phelps, A. L. (2017). Measuring Humeral Torsion with Ultrasound Using a One-Person Technique Is a Reliable and Valid. Eastern Athletic Trainers Association Symposium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Hannah, D. C., Scibek, J. S., Carcia, C. R., & Phelps, A. L. (2017). Measuring Humeral Torsion with Ultrasound Using a One-Person Technique Is a Reliable and Valid. Eastern Athletic Trainers Association Symposium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Phelps, A. L. (2016). Measured Community Engagement Outcomes Increases in a Business Statistics Class. Joint Statistical Meetings, Chicago, Illinois.

Phelps, A. L. (2016). Community Engagement in the classroom and as a conduit to published research. Joint Statistical Meetings, Chicago, Illinois.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Elzamzamy OM, O. M., Cifarelli DT,, D. T., Attaallah, A., Ranganathan, P., & Heiraty, P. (2016, May). Comparison of Continuous IV Phenylephrine vs. Norepinephrine Infusion in Prevention of Spinal Hypotension during Cesarean Delivery: Assessment of Hemodynamic Parameters and Maternal Outcomes. International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS), San Francisco, California.

Phelps, A.L., Attaallah, A. F., Elzamzamy, O., Ranganthan, P., & Vallejo, M. C. (2015). Predicting Operating Room Scheduling Error via Automated Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS). Euroanaesthesia 2015 Congress, Berlin, Germany.

Phelps, A. L., Szabat, K., Anderson, B., Camm, J., & LaBarr, A. (2015, August). The Current Landscape of Business Analytics and Data Science at Higher Education Institutions: Who is Teaching What? Joint Statistical Meetings, Seattle, Washington.

Phelps, A.L., Cacolice, P. A., Carcia, C. R., & Scibek, J. S. (2015, January). Landing kinetics can be predicted with lower extremity functional tests. Eastern Athletic Trainers Association Symposium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Phelps, A. L. (2014). Get REAL! Is it REAL-ly effective? Joint Statistical Meetings, Boston, Massachusetts.

Phelps, A.L., Cacolice, P. A., Carcia, C. R., & Scibek, J. S. (2014). Muscular Power Tests Predict Knee Joint Excursion but not Initial Contact Angle in NCAA Division One Female Athletes. National Athletic Trainers Association Annual Symposium, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Phelps, A. L. & Kuipers, S. (2013). Nurturing a Passion for Statistics by Finding Stories in the Data. U.S. Conference on Teaching Statistics, USCOTS, Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina.

Phelps, A.L., Golfeiz, C., Singh, S., Schnol, H., Paul, N., Vallejo, MC (2013). Long-term Complications of Postural Punctures at a Tertiary Care Obstetrical Medical Center. American Society of Anesthesiologist, San Francisco, California.

Phelps, A. L. & Dostilio, L. D. (2013). Developing a program-wide assessment of service-learning outcomes that maps onto institutional learning goals for students. Eastern Regional Campus Compact Conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Phelps, A. L. (2013). Write what? I thought this was a Math class? Decision Science Institute Annual Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M. C., Kowe, O., Zahir, F., Anthikad, F., Neera Sah (2012). An Epidural Depth Equation prior to Ultrasound Visualization in Obese Parturients by Resident Trainees Increases Epidural Catheter Success Rate as Measured by Less Attempts and Site Placements. Society for Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology, Monterey, California.

Phelps, A. L. (2012, September). Revising the Business Statistics Curriculum informed by Student Retention Results. Pearson sponsored eConference on Speaking about Teaching Business Statistics, Pittsburgh, Virtual.

Phelps, A. L. (2012, August). A first look at retention following changes to a two-semester business statistics curriculum. Joint Statistical Meetings, San Diego, California.

Phelps, A. L. (2011). Bringing Business Statistics to Life in a Two Semester Service Learning Project. Decision Science Institute Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts.

Phelps, A.L., Badve, M., Shah, T., Rice, J., Emery, S. P., & Vallejo, M. (2011). Protein Drink Supplementation to Promote Parturient Satisfaction during Labor. Society for Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology, Monterey, California.

Phelps, A.L., Shah, T., Badve, M., Vallejo, M., & Smith, K. (2011). A Novel Way for Trainees to Estimate Epidural Depth in Morbidly Obese Parturients. Society for Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology, Monterey, California.

Phelps, A., Ord, K., & Carver, R. (2010, August). Program Assessment and Accreditation, with Particular Reference to Business Schools. Joint Statistical Meetings, Vancouver, Canada.

Phelps, A. L. (2010, August). A second course of applied statistics for accredited professional schools. Joint Statistical Meetings, Vancouver, Canada.

Phelps, A. L. & Dostilio, L. (2008, September). Reaching out to communities in need: A day in the life of a Business Statistics student at Duquesne University. Southwestern PA Regional Network for Growth of Service Learning, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Phelps, A. (2007, July). What is so great about service learning (SL) and how much work is it? Joint Statistical Meetings, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Phelps, A.L. (2005). How to Implement Writing Assignments in a Statistics Classroom. The Joint Statistical Meetings, Minnesota.

Phelps, A. L. (2004). Scoring Rubrics. ARTIST Roundtable Conference, Appleton, WI.

Phelps, A. (1999). The Estimation of Dependence Parameter Using Copula Models with Additive Hazard Margins. Silver Anniversary Conference and 16th Annual Ohio Statistics Conference, Columbus, OH.

Phelps, A. (1999). Cytogenetic Health Effects in Chernobyl Schoolchildren. Radiation Epidemiology Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA.

Phelps, A. (1997). Copula Models with Additive Margins. International Biometrics Society-ENAR, Knoxville, TN.

Phelps, A. (1983). Histochemical Changes of Rat Skeletal Muscle Induced by Intense Interval Training. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Conference, Montreal, Canada.

Chapters

Phelps, A.L., Attaallah, A., Elzamzamy, O., & Ranganthan, P. (2016). Using AIMS to Predict OR Scheduling Errors. Anesthesiology News, 42 (4), 6-13.

Phelps, A.L., Vallejo, M., Attaallah, A., Cifarelli, D., & Elzamzamy, O. (2015). Comparison of Continuous IV Phenylephrine vs. Norepinephrine Infusion in Prevention of Spinal Hypotension During Caesarean Delivery: Assessment of Hemodynamic Parameters and Maternal Outcome. European Journal of Anesthesiology, Volume 32 | e-Supplement 53 page165.

Grants

Research: 2017: Szucs, K. A., Kolber, B., Kostek, M., Helm, E., Phelps, A. L., Natalia Morone Pain Research Challenge Grant, Team Walking, $75,000 Seed Funding, Collaborator, The Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) at the University of Pittsburgh is an integral part of a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded nationwide network. I am providing the statistical support for designing the study and analyzing the data.

Research Interests

My research focuses on two diverse areas of interest. The first area of research focuses on finding and providing the best instruction for teaching applied statistics to a general audience. Business students seldom go on to major in statistics but need to be able to understand and apply evidence-based research to make good business decisions. The continual quest to use realistic and applied problems as a fundamental pedagogy to learning statistics has led naturally toward the implementation of service-learning projects in the classroom. Additionally, in response to concerns that students are not able to use statistics in upper level classes, I am revising and assessing new curricula to improve student learning. Therefore, my current arms of statistical education research focus on

1.Service learning pedagogy and
2.Case studies in applied statistics

to further student learning.

The second area of interest brings me back to my roots of my academic instruction in biostatistics and public health. I have been actively consulting with the anesthesia department at Magee Womens Hospital for ten years exploring a variety of ways anesthesia can provide an improved experience for laboring woman while also reducing the risks and incidence of adverse neo-natal and maternal outcomes. Outcomes studied through this varied research have included:

•Periodontal disease as a risk factor in pre-term births
•The use of nitrous oxide in reducing anxiety
•Continuous versus patient controlled analgesia
•Factors reducing maternal fever
•The use of ultrasound in reducing failed placement of epidurals

More recent studies are looking at

•Using nitrous oxide to reduce the incidence of epidurals in laboring woman
•Providing protein supplementation as opposed to ice chips alone during labor