Dr. Bogdan G. Bucur

Bogdan G. Bucur

Associate Professor
McAnulty College and Graduate School of Liberal Arts
Department of Theology

Fisher Hall 624
Phone: 412.396.1598


Ph.D., Religious Studies, Marquette University, 2007
M.A., Theology, Marquette University, 2002
M.Th., Orthodox Theology, University of Bucharest (Romania), 1999

Dr. Bucur is a scholar of early Christianity, with a special interest in the link between reception history of the Bible and doctrinal developments in early Christianity and the Byzantine tradition.

He views it as important to study how early Christians articulated their religious identity by reworking doctrines, imagery, and practices inherited from the many currents of Second Temple Judaism. His academic interests were shaped significantly by participation in the interdisciplinary Seminar on the Jewish Roots of Christian Mysticism, and the "Theophaneia School", both led by Professor Andrei Orlov and Archbishop Dr. Alexander Golitzin at Marquette University.

His first book dealt with the use of angelic imagery in early Christian pneumatology (details HERE). His second (details HERE) is the first volume of a projected three-part study of the early Christian interpretation of biblical theophanies. 

Personal "Academia" page: https://duq.academia.edu/BogdanGabrielBucur


Scripture Re-envisioned: Christophanic Exegesis and the Making of a Christian Bible. Leiden: Bril, forthcoming November 2018. For details click HERE

Scripture Re-envisioned discusses the christological exegesis of biblical theophanies and argues its crucial importance for the appropriation of the Hebrew Bible as the Christian Old Testament. The Emmaus episode in Luke 24 and its history of interpretation serve as the methodological and hermeneutical prolegomenon to the early Christian exegesis of theophanies. Subsequent chapters discuss the reception history of Genesis 18; Exodus 3 and 33; Psalm 98/99 and 131/132; Isaiah 6; Habakkuk 3:2 (LXX); Daniel 3 and 7. Bucur shows that the earliest, most widespread and enduring reading of these biblical texts, namely their interpretation as "christophanies" -- manifestations of the Logos-to-be-incarnate -- constitutes a robust and versatile exegetical tradition, which lent itself to doctrinal reflection, apologetics, polemics, liturgical anamnesis and doxology.


Edited: Mystagogy: A Monastic Reading of Dionysius Areopagita. By Alexander Golitzin, edited by Bogdan G. Bucur (Minneapolis, Cistercian Publications, 2013). For details click here or on the book cover image. 

This book proposes an interpretation of the Pseudo-Dionysian corpus in light of the liturgical and ascetic tradition that defined the author and his audience. Characterized by both striking originality and remarkable fidelity to the patristic and late neoplatonic traditions, the Dionysian corpus is a coherent and unified structure, whose core and pivot is the treatise known as the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy. Given Pseudo-Dionysius' fundamental continuity with earlier Christian theology and spirituality, it is not surprising that the church, and in particular the ascetic community, recognized that this theological synthesis articulated its own fundamental experience and aspirations.

Bucur bookAngelomorphic Pneumatology: Clement of Alexandria and Other Early Christian Witnesses. Vigiliae Christianae Supplements 95. Leiden/ Boston: Brill, 2009.    

For Google Books view click here or on the book cover.     

This book discusses the occurrence of angelic imagery in early Christian discourse about the Holy Spirit. Taking as its entry-point Clement of Alexandria's less explored writings, Excerpta ex TheodotoEclogae propheticae, and Adumbrationes, it shows that Clement's angelomorphic pneumatology occurs in tandem with spirit christology, within a theological framework still characterized by a binitarian orientation. This complex theological articulation, supported by the exegesis of specific biblical passages (Zech 4:10; Isa 11:2-3; Matt 18:10), reworks Jewish and Christian traditions about the seven first-created angels, and constitutes a relatively widespread phenomenon in early Christianity. Evidence to support this claim is presented in the course of separate studies of Revelation, the Shepherd of Hermas, Justin Martyr, and Aphrahat.

Reviews:  Expository Times (here), Vigiliae christianae (here)Journal of Theological StudiesReview of Biblical Literature (here), Journal of Early Christian Studies (here), Biblical and Early Christian Studies (here).


"Réflexions sur la tradition mystique du christianisme orthodoxe et sa filiation avec le judaïsme," in Juifs et chrétiens dans l'Antiquité. Histoires parallèles, ed. Dan Jaffé (Paris: Cerf, 2019). [pdf]

"Ὁ ὤν εὐλογητὸς Χριστὸς ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν: Observations on the Early Christian Interpretation of the Burning Bush Scene," Judaisme ancien / Ancient Judaism 6 (2018):41-86. [pdf]

"Condescension, Anticipation, Reciprocal Ecstasies: Theological Reflections on the Early Christian Reading of Isaiah 6 and Daniel 3," Scottish Journal of Theology 71 (2018): 425-440. [pdf]

"A Blind Spot in the Study of Fourth-Century Christian Theology: The Christological Exegesis of Theophanies," The Journal of Theological Studies 69 (2018): 588-610. [pdf]

"God Never Appeared to Moses: Eusebius of Caesarea's Peculiar Exegesis of the Burning Bush Theophany," Journal of the Bible and its Reception 5 (2018): 235-258. [pdf]

"Scholarly Frameworks for Reading Irenaeus: The Question of Theophanies," Vigiliae Christianae (2018): 250-282. [pdf]

"Scholarship on the Old Testament Roots of Trinitarian Theology: Blind Spots and Blurred Vision," in The Bible and Early Trinitarian Theology, ed. Christopher Beeley and Mark Weedman (Washington, DC: CUA Press, 2018), 29-49. [pdf

"Anti-Jewish Rhetoric in Byzantine Hymnography: Exegetical and Theological Contextualization," St. Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 61 (2017): 39-61. [pdf

"The Son of Man and The Ancient of Days: Observations On The Early Christian Reception of Daniel 7," Phronema 32 (2017): 1-27. [pdf

"Christophanic Exegesis and the Problem of Symbolization: Daniel 3 (The Fiery Furnace) As a Test Case," Journal of Theological Interpretation 10 (2016): 227-244. [pdf]

"The Early Christian Reception of Genesis 18: From Theophany To Trinitarian Symbolism," Journal of Early Christian Studies 23 (2015): 245-272. [pdf]

"Early Christian Exegesis of Biblical Theophanies and The Parting of the Ways: Justin of Neapolis and Clement of Alexandria," in Les judaïsmes dans tous leurs états aux Ier-IIIe siècles/ The Panoply of Judaisms in the 1st-3rd Centuries (Ed. C. Minouni, B. Pouderon, C. Clivaz; Paris: Brepols, 2015) 245-274. [pdf]

"Hierarchy, Eldership, Isangelia: Clement of Alexandria and the Ascetic Tradition," in Alexandrian Legacy: A Critical Appraisal (ed. D. Costache, P. Kariatlis, and M. Baghos [Cambridge: Scholars, 2015) 2-45. [pdf

"Blinded by Invisible Light: Revisiting the Emmaus Story (Luke 24,13-35)," Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 90 (2014): 685-707. [pdf]

"I Saw The Lord: Observations on the Early Christian Reception of Isaiah 6," Pro Ecclesia 23 (2014): 309-330 [pdf]

"Justin Martyr's Exegesis of Old Testament Theophanies and the Parting of the Ways Between Christianity and Judaism," Theological Studies 75 (2014) 34-51 [pdf]

"Clement of Alexandria's Exegesis of Old Testament Theophanies," Phronema 29 (2014): 63-81 [pdf]

"Exegesis and Intertextuality in Anastasius of Sinai's Homily On the Transfiguration," Studia Patristica 68 (2013): 249-260 [pdf]

"'Mysticism' in the Pre-Nicene Era?," in The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Christian Mysticism (ed. Julia Lamm; Wiley-Blackwell, 2013).

"From Jewish Apocalypticism to Orthodox Mysticism," in The Orthodox Christian World (Ed. Augustine Casiday; Routledge, 2012), 466-480. [pdf]

"Scholarly Frameworks for Reading 2 Cor 12:1-10: A Critical Presentation," in Naboth's Vineyard: Studia theologica recentiora (Ed. I. Tudorie, O. Gordon, A. Mihaila; Cluj, Romania: Presa Universitară Clujeană, 2012), 175-190.

"Vision, Exegesis, and Theology in the Reception History of Hab 3:2 (LXX), in "What Does the Scripture Say?": Studies in the Function of Scripture in Early Judaism and Christianity. Volume 2: The Letters and Liturgical Traditions (SSEJC 18; ed. Craig A. Evans and H. Daniel Zacharias; London and New York: T & T Clark International, 2011), 134-146.

"'Early Christian Binitarianism': From Religious Phenomenon to Polemical Insult to Scholarly Concept," Modern Theology 27 (2011): 102-120 [pdf

[with Elijah Mueller] "Gregory Nazianzen's Exegesis of Hab 3:2 (LXX) and Its Reception: A Lesson from Byzantine Scripture Exegesis," Pro Ecclesia 20 (2011): 86-103 [pdf]

"Sinai, Zion, and Tabor: An Entry into the Christian Bible," Journal of Theological Interpretation 4 (2010): 33-52. [pdf

"Matt 17:1-9 as a Vision of a Vision: A Neglected Strand in the Patristic Reception of the Transfiguration," Neotestamentica 44 (2010): 15-30. 

"The Mountain of the Lord: Sinai, Zion, and Eden in Byzantine Hymnographic Exegesis," in Symbola caelestis: Le symbolisme liturgique et paraliturgique dans le monde chrétien. Eds. B. Lourié & A. Orlov (Piscataway, NJ; Gorgias, 2009), 129-172.

"Exegesis of Isaiah 11:2 in Aphrahat the Persian Sage," in Early Christian Literature and Intertextuality (Ed. Craig Evans; London / New York: T & T Clark International), 2009.

"The Divine Face and the Angels of the Face: Jewish Apocalyptic Themes in Early Christology and Pneumatology," in Apocalyptic Thought in Early Christianity (ed. Robert Daly; Baker Academic, 2009), 143-153. 

"The Place of the Hypotyposeis in the Clementine Corpus: An Apology for 'The Other Clement of Alexandria'," Journal of Early Christian Studies 17 (2009): 313-335.

"Early Christian Angelomorphic Pneumatology: Aphrahat the Persian Sage," Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies 11 (2008); 

"Dionysius East and West: Unities, Differentiations, and the Exegesis of Biblical Theophanies," Dionysius 26 (2008): 115-38. 

"The Angelic Spirit in Early Christianity: Justin, the Martyr and Philosopher," Journal of Religion 88 (2008):190-208. 

"Theophanies and Vision of God in Augustine's De Trinitate: An Eastern Orthodox Perspective," Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 52 (2008):67-93.

""Foreordained from All Eternity: The Mystery of the Incarnation According to Some Early Christian and Byzantine Writers," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 62 (2008): 199-215.

"Hierarchy, Prophecy, and the Angelomorphic Spirit: A Contribution to the Study of the Book of Revelation's Wirkungsgeschichte," Journal of Biblical Literature 127 (2008):173-194.

"Revisiting Christian Oeyen: ‘The Other Clement' on Father, Son, and the Angelomorphic Spirit." Vigiliae christianae 61 (2007):381-413. 

"Exegesis of Biblical Theophanies in Byzantine Hymnography: Rewritten Bible?," Theological Studies 68 (2007): 92-112. 

"Matt. 18:10 In Early Christology and Pneumatology: A Contribution to the Study of Matthean Wirkungsgeschichte." Novum Testamentum 49 (2007) 209-231.

"The Feet that Eve Heard in Paradise and Was Afraid: Observations on the Christology of Byzantine Festal Hymns," Philosophy and Theology (2007): 3-26.

"The Son of God and the Angelomorphic Holy Spirit: A Rereading of the Shepherd's Christology," Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 98 (2007):121-143. 

"The Theological Reception of Dionysian Apophatism in the Christian East and West: Thomas Aquinas and Gregory Palamas," The Downside Review 125 (2007): 131-146.

"The Place of Splendor and Light: Observations on the Paraphrasing of Enn 4.8.1 in the Theology of Aristotle" [co-author, with Cristina Bucur], Le Muséon 119 (2006): 271-292. 

"Observations on the Ascetic Doctrine of the Shepherd of Hermas," Studia Monastica 48 (2006): 7-23. 

"The Other Clement: Cosmic Hierarchy and Interiorized Apocalypticism," Vigiliae christianae 60 (2006): 251-268. 


Undergraduate: Introduction to the Bible; Jesus in the Visual Arts; The New Testament; Early Christianity; Prophetic Literature.

MA: Introduction to the Old Testament

Ph.D. Seminars:
Reception History of the Book of Exodus
Pentateuch in Reception-Historical Perspective;
O.T. Theophanies and their Reception History;
Divine Worship and the Presence of the Divine in Ancient Israel.



Resources for Hebrew Bible here


The Virtual World Project (Creighton University) here


General Archaeology Links (Jim West) here


Hebrew Bible, Hebrew Texts, Rabbinica (Jim West) here


Targumim (Hebrew Union College) here


New Testament Resources (Jim West) here


The Old Testament and the Ancient Near East (Ralph Klein) here


Jewish Roots of Eastern Christian Mysticism (Marquette University) here


Trends in Ancient Jewish and Christian Mysticism (University of Dayton) here


The Theophaneia School here

The Philadelphia Seminar on Christian Origins (University of Pennsylvania) here


Albert Pietersma page here



General resources here


Walter Brueggeman page here


Meredith Kline page here



The Online Critical Pseudepigrapha here


OT Pseudepigrapha in English translation here



Letter of Aristeas Greek / English (James Miller) here


Comparison between MT and LXX books (James Miller) here and here

Convenient English parallel of LXX (Brenton) and MT (KJV) here


LXX (Rahlfs) online here


LXX (Greek/ French) here


NETS (New English Translation of the Septuagint) here


Resources for the study of LXX here (Joel Kalvesmaki) and here



LXX in the NT and Early Christian Literature (R. Grant Jones) here



Resources for the study of Philo here


Philo in English here






Rashi here





Codex Sinaiticus here
NT and Patristics Links (C. W. Conrad)

NT Links (Jim West)

A very brief introduction to the Nestle-Aland critical apparatus

New Testament Papyri and Codices (K. C. Hanson)

The Development of the NT Canon

Synoptic Problem Website (Stephen C. Carlson)

Syriac NT (Jacobite script)

OT Peshitta in English (tr. Lamsa) here

NT Peshitta in English (tr. Lamsa) here


Compiled by William Harmless, S.J. (Creighton University)


NT Studies from a Liberal Perspective

The Jesus Seminar view of the Gospels

The Higher Critical Review

The Journal of Higher Criticism

Robert Price Website

NT Studies from a Conservative Perspective

Biblical Exegesis and the Church (Cardinal Ratzinger)

Bibliography compiled by Scott Hahn (Franciscan University)

New Testament Mysticism Project Seminar

N. T. Wright Page

The New Perspective on Paul


Antike Texte zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments (University of Siegen)

Biblical Resources: Early Christianity's Social Context (Torey Seland)

R. Grant Jones: Notes on Church History


The Bible and Its Interpretation (University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign) here


The Reception History of the Bible (Duquesne University) here


Biblia Patristica & more searchable here


Biblia Pauperum on the Internet here


Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture (IV Press) here


The Church's Bible (Eerdmans) here


Novum Testamentum Patristicum (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht) here


Centre for Reception History of the Bible (Oxford University) here


* Resources for the study of NT APOCRYPHA


April DeConick Blog (Rice University)

Novum Testamentum (Blog)

Paleojudaica (Dr. James Davila, St Andrews University)

Chris Tilling


The Orthodox Center for the Advancement of Biblical Studies


* Basic bibliographies:

Base d'Information bibliographique en patristique

Compiled by William Harmless, S. J. (Creighton University)

Patristic Text Collections

GCS (Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller) here

Migne, Patrologia graeca here


Patrologia Graeca online (partial)

BEPES (SC texts without the French)

Maximus the Confessor, Symeon the New Theologian, Gregory Palamas in WORD here


ANF/ NPNF Series

Texts in Addition to the NPNF/ANF Series

Athanasius of Alexandria (Athanasius Werke • Arbeitsstelle Erlangen) here


John Chrysostom, complete works (French trans) here


Gregory of Nyssa page (texts and studies) here



Latin Christian Texts

Confessiones (Latin text plus commentary by J. O'Donnell)

Augustine (PL)and another Augustine online source

Other hard to find patristic text in English translation





Service, Hymnography, other liturgical resources Greek/English here



Athanasius of Alexandria (Athanasius Werke: Arbeitsstelle Erlangen) here


Evagrius Pages (Joel Kalvesmaki)

Filocalia (Romanian)

ADAMANTIUS: Newsletter of the Italian Research Group on "Origen and the Alexandrian Tradition"

Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean

Centre for Early Christian Studies at the Australian Catholic University


"Visual Midrash" here


ART RESOURCES (provided by Ad Imaginem Dei blog)

Web Gallery of Art - http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/welcome.html

This website, based in Hungary, is the most comprehensive site I have found for the art of the Renaissance through the first part of the nineteenth century. Although it covers the period 1000 - 1900 its strengths lie in the periods mentioned. Its section for medieval art is slowly improving as well. It offers a database, a glossary of terms related to art (technique, subject, descriptive terms, etc.), artist biographies and a bibliography.

The Google Art Project - http://www.googleartproject.com/

This site offers incredibly detailed digital images of a selection of works from a selection of museums around the world. Not comprehensive by any means, but a truly in depth look at some of the world's greatest works of art.

The Art Renewal Center Online Museum - http://www.artrenewal.org/pages/search.php

This site focuses on what can be described as "academic art" and is particularly strong in the works of nineteenth-century artists.

Biblical Art on the WWW - http://www.biblical-art.com/index.htm

This site is useful for images which derive from Biblical passages and events. It appears to be Protestant in orientation, so is not useful for non-Biblical images, such as saints lives/legends (except for those mentioned in the Bible) or events in Church History after the mid-first century AD.

Joconde - http://www.culture.gouv.fr/documentation/joconde/fr/recherche/rech_libre.htm

This site includes materials from all the museums under the auspices of the French government. This greatly simplifies searching for images that are currently located in a French museum. Only available in French.

Bildindex der Kuenst und Architectur - http://www.bildindex.de/#|home

This site is not for the faint of heart, but it is extremely useful nonetheless. It is a very detailed index of images, primarily from Central Europe, and mostly in black and white, but these are usually underrepresented on other sites. It is in German and there is no English site.

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York - http://www.metmuseum.org/

You can browse or search the collection database and the exhibition database.

The Louvre, Paris - http://www.louvre.fr/llv/commun/home.jsp?bmLocale=en

One of the world's great museums. You can search the database of works. Available in French and English. This link is to the English version.

The Prado, Madrid - http://www.museodelprado.es/en

Another of the world's great museums, also with a searchable database of the collection. Available in Spanish and English. This link is to the English version.

The National Gallery, London - http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/

Another of the world's great museums, though the collection is limited to paintings only, also with a searchable database of the collection.

The Victoria and Albert Museum, London - http://www.vam.ac.uk/page/t/the-collections/ The V&A houses all the other things that the National Gallery doesn't, in addition to a paintings collection that includes the Raphael Cartoons.

The Vatican Museums, Vatican City State - http://mv.vatican.va/3_EN/pages/MV_Home.html The Vatican Museums are among the greatest in the world, but the website is a little more difficult to use than some others. The information on the collections is there, but you need to poke around a bit to find it.

The Pierpont Morgan Library - http://www.themorgan.org/home.asp

One of the great manuscript collections of the United States. Has a searchable database of its collections. The Morgan also hosts interesting temporary exhibitions.

The British Library - http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/welcome.htm

One of the great collections of Europe. Has a searchable database.

Bibliotheque nationale de France, Manuscript Collection- http://mandragore.bnf.fr/html/accueil.html
The Bibliotheque nationale de France has one of the world's greatest collections of manuscripts. Its searchable database, called Mandragore, lists most of them and gives access to the entire manuscript, if photos are available.

Koninklijk Bibliotheek - http://www.kb.nl/manuscripts/

The Royal Library of the Netherlands site incliudes a searchable database for illuminated manuscripts.

Corpus Thomisticum (Complete works of Aquinas online)