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Rehana Leak

Associate Professor
School of Pharmacy
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences

407 Mellon Hall
Phone: 412.396.4734
leakr@duq.edu

Education:

Ph.D., Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, 1996–98
M.Sc., Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, 1993–95
B.A., Biopsychology, Barnard College, 1988–92
Courses

Current Courses

PHBM 355: Human Physiology and Pathology I

PHBM 356: Human Physiology and Pathology II

GPSC 576: Neuronal Pharmacology and General Toxicological Principles (Coursemaster)

GPSC 695: Oral and Written Presentation Skills in Pharmacology (Coursemaster)

GPSC 572: Methods of Evaluation of Drug Action and Toxicity

Research

Leak_1Patients and their caregivers are welcome to visit my laboratory. Please email me at leakr@duq.edu or call 412.396.4734 to set up a visit to the Leak lab.

My research focuses on the early pathology of neurological disorders because our only hope at curing these conditions might be interventions initiated before massive cell loss unfolds. Below, I will summarize in simple terms our answers to two basic but important questions about human brain disorders. However, I cannot claim that my lab is on the "cusp" of curing any dreadful disease, because that would not be true. If you are a student attending my classes, you will already know that I do not believe scientists can fully comprehend the natural world. The truth is more complex than we can fathom and lies beyond the grasp of the human brain. Nevertheless, the scientific method is the most accurate tool for systematic observations of the natural world and for identifying safe and effective therapies.

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From 2012 to 2018, I gradually transitioned my lab from rapid cell line work to primary cultures of brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) and more clinically translatable animal studies.1-18 Now we employ multiple models of Parkinson's disease for the following reasons: 1) Each model suffers from grave but often unavoidable limitations, and 2) the efficacy of therapies should be confirmed in many independent biological systems to increase the probability of success in clinical trials.

Leak_3The traditional view of Parkinson's disease is that it arises from "selective" cell loss in dopamine-rich regions deep in the human midbrain. This view was repeated ad nauseam in papers, textbooks, and conferences, but it is false. Many non-dopaminergic brain regions also develop Parkinson's pathology (known as Lewy bodies) and exhibit degeneration of neurons, including cells that synthesize noradrenalin, serotonin, and acetylcholine, culminating in both motor and nonmotor deficits.19-27 Some of these observations were published four decades ago but were not widely acknowledged.28,29

In Parkinson's disease, the earliest Lewy pathology may emerge in brain regions situated above the nasal cavity and a few sites in the brainstem, many years before dopaminergic cell loss and the onset of movement deficits.34-43 To be sure of this, we still need multiple specific biomarkers we can follow longitudinally in the same patient. Only with specific biomarkers of imminent neurodegeneration might the clinician intervene before irreversible neuron loss commences in deeper brain regions.44 As early interventions may be our only hope at curing neurological conditions, my lab has been focusing on the earliest stages of Lewy body disorders, during which pathology is strongest in olfactory brain regions and patients report smell loss, an important but nonspecific harbinger of disease and mortality.45-47 Forty percent of older adults with complete smell loss are dead within five years, compared to only 10% of older adults with normal smell perception.47 Smell loss has been linked to higher mortality rates than heart failure, stroke, cancer, and diabetes.47

Four years ago, we employed brain surgery on mice to inject an olfactory target near the naval cavities with a protein, α-synuclein, that is closely associated with Lewy pathology.12 The initial data supported the view that Lewy pathology might spread through neuronal circuits that unite brain regions governing smell, emotion, and memory.12 Similar findings were reported by other groups.48,49 Many scientists have argued in support of the ‘olfactory vector' hypothesis of Parkinson's disease, whereby intranasal exposure to a pathogen initiates a toxic cascade that travels across nerves and between cells deep into the brain.50-52 The mathematical term "vector" aptly captures motion and direction, but we may be wrong about the "transmissibility" hypothesis. It is not a trivial question to decide where in the brain a disease might commence and how it might cause symptoms. Therefore, it remains possible that Parkinson's pathology does not travel through anatomical circuitry but appears first at vulnerable sites with inadequate natural defenses.

For more information on this body of work, including its limitations,12,13 and to view our raw microscopy data, you may link to Gumberg library: https://dsc.duq.edu/pharmacology/

Leak_4Most people focus on the negative sequelae of stress, rather than its benefits, and many do not worry too much about the dose of stress. However, the dose and the duration of stress determine not only the size of the response, but also its direction. A large body of work reveals that mild cellular stressors or low doses of drugs boost natural defenses that prepare the cell or animal for the next challenges it might face. This biological stress resistance is called "preconditioning" or "tolerance." In the Leak lab, we are testing the hypothesis that exposure to stress promotes natural cellular defenses that delay the onset of neurodegenerative disorders and slow their progression. If true, this hypothesis would explain why the neurological symptoms typically only emerge late in life.

A few years ago, my lab reported that some cell types (e.g., glial astrocytes) increase their fortifications even when the dose of stress is so high that their less-fortunate neighbors are killed by the exposure.2,9 These data reveal that, from the perspective of the surviving cells, the benefits of stress are not only reaped when the dose is low and the stress is mild, as is often claimed in the preconditioning literature, but also when the stress is severe. For more on this project, please see http://dose-response.org/2014-outstanding-new-investigator-dr-rehana-leak/

We recently collected evidence of "cross-hemispheric" preconditioning in one of the animal models of dopamine cell loss in Parkinson's disease.15 Induction of cellular stress in one hemisphere of the brain completely prevented dopaminergic cell loss and movement deficits in response to a second hit on the opposite side of the brain.15 Our neurochemical studies then demonstrated that injury in one hemisphere "warns" the opposite hemisphere to amplify synthesis of antioxidants and other pro-survival molecules. However, we do not understand the mechanism yet because we only established correlations between proteins and neuroprotection without verifying causal links. Prior to this study, there was no satisfactory hypothesis for the asymmetry in Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's deficits and cell loss are not bilaterally symmetrical until many years have passed, perhaps because of cross-hemispheric preconditioning of the brain, although more work needs to be done to confirm this.

Finally, students joining my lab should be aware that the mammalian brain is more heterogeneous and complicated than any other organ. It is difficult to make meaningful generalizations about brain function based upon the behavior of only one cell type or only one brain region. My lab published four papers addressing regional differences in the mammalian brain.1,3,6,8 For my students' publications on the therapeutic potential of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, please see: 4-6,10,11,14,18. For additional work of ours, you can also link to these websites:

  1. https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&user=QyfMMUoAAAAJ
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/myncbi/browse/collection/48108911/?sort=date&direction=descending

Leak_5

1. Crum, T.S., Gleixner, A.M., Posimo, J.M., Mason, D.M., Broeren, M.T., Heinemann, S.D., Wipf, P., Brodsky, J.L. & Leak, R.K. Heat shock protein responses to aging and proteotoxicity in the olfactory bulb. J Neurochem 133, 780-94 (2015).
2. Gleixner, A.M., Posimo, J.M., Pant, D.B., Henderson, M.P. & Leak, R.K. Astrocytes Surviving Severe Stress Can Still Protect Neighboring Neurons from Proteotoxic Injury. Mol Neurobiol 53, 4939-60 (2016).
3. Gleixner, A.M., Pulugulla, S.H., Pant, D.B., Posimo, J.M., Crum, T.S. & Leak, R.K. Impact of aging on heat shock protein expression in the substantia nigra and striatum of the female rat. Cell Tissue Res 357, 43-54 (2014).
4. Heinemann, S.D., Posimo, J.M., Mason, D.M., Hutchison, D.F. & Leak, R.K. Synergistic stress exacerbation in hippocampal neurons: Evidence favoring the dual-hit hypothesis of neurodegeneration. Hippocampus 26, 980-94 (2016).
5. Jiang, Y., Rumble, J.L., Gleixner, A.M., Unnithan, A.S., Pulugulla, S.H., Posimo, J.M., Choi, H.J., Crum, T.S., Pant, D.B. & Leak, R.K. N-Acetyl cysteine blunts proteotoxicity in a heat shock protein-dependent manner. Neuroscience 255C, 19-32 (2013).
6. Posimo, J.M., Titler, A.M., Choi, H.J., Unnithan, A.S. & Leak, R.K. Neocortex and allocortex respond differentially to cellular stress in vitro and aging in vivo. PLoS One 8, e58596 (2013).
7. Posimo, J.M., Unnithan, A.S., Gleixner, A.M., Choi, H.J., Jiang, Y., Pulugulla, S.H. & Leak, R.K. Viability assays for cells in culture. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE 83, e50645 (2014).
8. Posimo, J.M., Weilnau, J.N., Gleixner, A.M., Broeren, M.T., Weiland, N.L., Brodsky, J.L., Wipf, P. & Leak, R.K. Heat shock protein defenses in the neocortex and allocortex of the telencephalon. Neurobiol Aging 36, 1924-37 (2015).
9. Titler, A.M., Posimo, J.M. & Leak, R.K. Astrocyte plasticity revealed by adaptations to severe proteotoxic stress. Cell and tissue research 352, 427-43 (2013).
10. Unnithan, A.S., Choi, H.J., Titler, A.M., Posimo, J.M. & Leak, R.K. Rescue from a two hit, high-throughput model of neurodegeneration with N-acetyl cysteine. Neurochemistry international 61, 356-368 (2012).
11. Unnithan, A.S., Jiang, Y., Rumble, J.L., Pulugulla, S.H., Posimo, J.M., Gleixner, A.M. & Leak, R.K. N-acetyl cysteine prevents synergistic, severe toxicity from two hits of oxidative stress. Neurosci Lett 560, 71-6 (2014).
12. Mason, D.M., Nouraei, N., Pant, D.B., Miner, K.M., Hutchison, D.F., Luk, K.C., Stolz, J.F. & Leak, R.K. Transmission of alpha-synucleinopathy from olfactory structures deep into the temporal lobe. Mol Neurodegener 11, 49 (2016).
13. Nouraei, N., Mason, D.M., Miner, K.M., Carcella, M.A., Bhatia, T.N., Dumm, B.K., Soni, D., Johnson, D.A., Luk, K.C. & Leak, R.K. Critical appraisal of pathology transmission in the alpha-synuclein fibril model of Lewy body disorders. Exp Neurol 299, 172-196 (2018).
14. Nouraei, N., Zarger, L., Weilnau, J.N., Han, J., Mason, D.M. & Leak, R.K. Investigation of the therapeutic potential of N-acetyl cysteine and the tools used to define nigrostriatal degeneration in vivo. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 296, 19-30 (2016).
15. Weilnau, J.N., Carcella, M.A., Miner, K.M., Bhatia, T.N., Hutchison, D.F., Pant, D.B., Nouraei, N. & Leak, R.K. Evidence for cross-hemispheric preconditioning in experimental Parkinson's disease. Brain Struct Funct (2017).
16. Leak, R.K. Heat shock proteins in neurodegenerative disorders and aging. J Cell Commun Signal 8, 293-310 (2014).
17. Leak, R.K. Adaptation and sensitization to proteotoxic stress. Dose-response : a publication of International Hormesis Society 12, 24-56 (2014).
18. Gleixner, A.M., Hutchison, D.F., Sannino, S., Bhatia, T.N., Leak, L.C., Flaherty, P.T., Wipf, P., Brodsky, J.L. & Leak, R.K. N-acetyl-L-cysteine protects astrocytes against proteotoxicity without recourse to glutathione. Mol Pharmacol (2017).
19. Zarow, C., Lyness, S.A., Mortimer, J.A. & Chui, H.C. Neuronal loss is greater in the locus coeruleus than nucleus basalis and substantia nigra in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Arch Neurol 60, 337-41 (2003).
20. German, D.C., Manaye, K.F., White, C.L., 3rd, Woodward, D.J., McIntire, D.D., Smith, W.K., Kalaria, R.N. & Mann, D.M. Disease-specific patterns of locus coeruleus cell loss. Ann Neurol 32, 667-76 (1992).
21. Halliday, G.M., Blumbergs, P.C., Cotton, R.G., Blessing, W.W. & Geffen, L.B. Loss of brainstem serotonin- and substance P-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease. Brain Res 510, 104-7 (1990).
22. Halliday, G.M., Li, Y.W., Blumbergs, P.C., Joh, T.H., Cotton, R.G., Howe, P.R., Blessing, W.W. & Geffen, L.B. Neuropathology of immunohistochemically identified brainstem neurons in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol 27, 373-85 (1990).
23. Jellinger, K. The pedunculopontine nucleus in Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 51, 540-3 (1988).
24. Hirsch, E.C., Graybiel, A.M., Duyckaerts, C. & Javoy-Agid, F. Neuronal loss in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in Parkinson disease and in progressive supranuclear palsy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84, 5976-80 (1987).
25. Candy, J.M., Perry, R.H., Perry, E.K., Irving, D., Blessed, G., Fairbairn, A.F. & Tomlinson, B.E. Pathological changes in the nucleus of Meynert in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. J Neurol Sci 59, 277-89 (1983).
26. Nakano, I. & Hirano, A. Parkinson's disease: neuron loss in the nucleus basalis without concomitant Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 15, 415-8 (1984).
27. Hall, H., Reyes, S., Landeck, N., Bye, C., Leanza, G., Double, K., Thompson, L., Halliday, G. & Kirik, D. Hippocampal Lewy pathology and cholinergic dysfunction are associated with dementia in Parkinson's disease. Brain 137, 2493-508 (2014).
28. Mann, D.M., Yates, P.O. & Hawkes, J. The pathology of the human locus ceruleus. Clin Neuropathol 2, 1-7 (1983).
29. Tomonaga, M. Neuropathology of the locus ceruleus: a semi-quantitative study. J Neurol 230, 231-40 (1983).
30. Hely, M.A., Reid, W.G., Adena, M.A., Halliday, G.M. & Morris, J.G. The Sydney multicenter study of Parkinson's disease: the inevitability of dementia at 20 years. Mov Disord 23, 837-44 (2008).
31. Russell, A., Drozdova, A., Wang, W. & Thomas, M. The impact of dementia development concurrent with Parkinson's disease: a new perspective. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 13, 1160-8 (2014).
32. Aarsland, D., Andersen, K., Larsen, J.P., Lolk, A., Nielsen, H. & Kragh-Sorensen, P. Risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease: a community-based, prospective study. Neurology 56, 730-6 (2001).
33. Aarsland, D., Beyer, M.K. & Kurz, M.W. Dementia in Parkinson's disease. Curr Opin Neurol 21, 676-82 (2008).
34. Fasano, A., Visanji, N.P., Liu, L.W., Lang, A.E. & Pfeiffer, R.F. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Lancet Neurol 14, 625-39 (2015).
35. Del Tredici, K. & Braak, H. Review: Sporadic Parkinson's disease: development and distribution of alpha-synuclein pathology. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 42, 33-50 (2016).
36. Jucker, M. & Walker, L.C. Self-propagation of pathogenic protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Nature 501, 45-51 (2013).
37. Braak, H., Del Tredici, K., Bratzke, H., Hamm-Clement, J., Sandmann-Keil, D. & Rub, U. Staging of the intracerebral inclusion body pathology associated with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (preclinical and clinical stages). J Neurol 249 Suppl 3, III/1-5 (2002).
38. Braak, H., Del Tredici, K., Rub, U., de Vos, R.A., Jansen Steur, E.N. & Braak, E. Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging 24, 197-211 (2003).
39. Adler, C.H. & Beach, T.G. Neuropathological basis of nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 31, 1114-9 (2016).
40. Beach, T.G., Adler, C.H., Lue, L., Sue, L.I., Bachalakuri, J., Henry-Watson, J., Sasse, J., Boyer, S., Shirohi, S., Brooks, R., Eschbacher, J., White, C.L., 3rd, Akiyama, H., Caviness, J., Shill, H.A., Connor, D.J., Sabbagh, M.N., Walker, D.G. & Arizona Parkinson's Disease, C. Unified staging system for Lewy body disorders: correlation with nigrostriatal degeneration, cognitive impairment and motor dysfunction. Acta Neuropathol 117, 613-34 (2009).
41. Beach, T.G., White, C.L., 3rd, Hladik, C.L., Sabbagh, M.N., Connor, D.J., Shill, H.A., Sue, L.I., Sasse, J., Bachalakuri, J., Henry-Watson, J., Akiyama, H., Adler, C.H. & Arizona Parkinson's Disease, C. Olfactory bulb alpha-synucleinopathy has high specificity and sensitivity for Lewy body disorders. Acta Neuropathol 117, 169-74 (2009).
42. Braak, H., Rub, U., Gai, W.P. & Del Tredici, K. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease: possible routes by which vulnerable neuronal types may be subject to neuroinvasion by an unknown pathogen. J Neural Transm 110, 517-36 (2003).
43. Hawkes, C.H., Del Tredici, K. & Braak, H. Parkinson's disease: a dual-hit hypothesis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 33, 599-614 (2007).
44. Attems, J., Walker, L. & Jellinger, K.A. Olfactory bulb involvement in neurodegenerative diseases. Acta neuropathologica 127, 459-75 (2014).
45. Attems, J., Walker, L. & Jellinger, K.A. Olfaction and Aging: A Mini-Review. Gerontology 61, 485-90 (2015).
46. Pinto, J.M., Wroblewski, K.E., Kern, D.W., Schumm, L.P. & McClintock, M.K. Olfactory dysfunction predicts 5-year mortality in older adults. PLoS One 9, e107541 (2014).
47. Rey, N.L., George, S., Steiner, J.A., Madaj, Z., Luk, K.C., Trojanowski, J.Q., Lee, V.M. & Brundin, P. Spread of aggregates after olfactory bulb injection of alpha-synuclein fibrils is associated with early neuronal loss and is reduced long term. Acta Neuropathol (2017).
48. Rey, N.L., Steiner, J.A., Maroof, N., Luk, K.C., Madaj, Z., Trojanowski, J.Q., Lee, V.M. & Brundin, P. Widespread transneuronal propagation of alpha-synucleinopathy triggered in olfactory bulb mimics prodromal Parkinson's disease. J Exp Med (2016).
49. Doty, R.L. The olfactory vector hypothesis of neurodegenerative disease: is it viable? Annals of neurology 63, 7-15 (2008).
50. Hawkes, C.H., Shephard, B.C. & Daniel, S.E. Is Parkinson's disease a primary olfactory disorder? QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians 92, 473-80 (1999).
51. Prediger, R.D., Aguiar, A.S., Jr., Matheus, F.C., Walz, R., Antoury, L., Raisman-Vozari, R. & Doty, R.L. Intranasal administration of neurotoxicants in animals: support for the olfactory vector hypothesis of Parkinson's disease. Neurotox Res 21, 90-116 (2012).
52. Lee, M. & Carroll, T.J. Cross education: possible mechanisms for the contralateral effects of unilateral resistance training. Sports Med 37, 1-14 (2007).
Awards

 Active Grants

1.   NIH grant 1R21NS107960-01 on the role of Hsp70 in Lewy body disorders (RK Leak, PI) 2018-2020
2.   NIH grant 1R15NS093539-01 on N-acetyl cysteine-mediated neuroprotection (RK Leak, PI) 2015-2019
3.   NIH grant 1R21NS108386-01A1 on dopaminergic modulation in cardiac arrest (Amy Wagner PI, RK Leak Co-I) 2018-2020
4.   NIH grant 2R01NS036736-15 on the role of FEN1 in preventing acute brain injuries (J Chen PI, RK Leak Co-I) 2016-2021
5.   NIH grant 1R01NS095029-01 on tPA-mediated neuroprotection in acute brain injuries (J Chen PI, RK Leak Co-I) 2015-2020

Previous Awards and Honors

1.   President's Award for Excellence in Scholarship (Duquesne University) 2018
2.   Pittsburgh Institute for Brain Disorders and Recovery 2018
3.   NSF grant 1726368 (J Pollock PI, RK Leak and others, Co-PIs) 2017
4.   Mensa 2017
5.   Center for Protein Conformational Diseases at the University of Pittsburgh 2017
6.   Duquesne University Research Hall of Fame 2016
7.   School of Pharmacy nominee for the President's Award in Scholarship (not a finalist) 2015
8.   NIH Early Career Grant Reviewer 2016
9.   Rho Chi Pharmacy Honor Society 2015
10.   NIH grant 1R03NS088395-01A1 (RK Leak, PI) 2015
11.   Hillman Family Foundation grant 940562 (RK Leak, PI) 2014-2016
12.   Outstanding New Investigator Award, http://dose-response.org/2014-outstanding-new-investigator-dr-rehana-leak/ 2014
13.   Member of editorial board for the Elsevier journal Neurochemistry International 2014
14.   Michael J. Fox Foundation grant (RK Leak, PI) 2013-2014
15.   Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Award (RK Leak, PI) 2013-2014
16.   Mylan School of Pharmacy Faculty Award 2013
17.   Voted Professor of the Year by the PY1 Duquesne Pharmacy students 2012
18.   Faculty Development Fund grant (RK Leak, PI) 2011-2013
19.   Parkinson's and Movement Disorders Foundation grant (RK Leak, PI) 2010-2011
20.   Hunkele Dreaded Diseases Foundation grant (RK Leak, PI) 2010-2012
21.   NIH 2P50 NS19608-24 grant (M Zigmond PI, RK Leak Co-I) 2009-2013
22.   American Parkinson's Disease Association (RK Leak, PI) 2006-2007
23.   Michael J. Fox Foundation Fellowship (RK Leak, Postdoctoral Fellow) 2004-2006
24.   NIH Career-Reentry Fellowship (RK Leak, Postdoctoral Fellow) 2004-2006
25.   Career hiatus–family leave 2001-2003
26.   NIH T32 Postdoctoral Fellowship 2001
27.   NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program Award - Life Sciences (Neurosciences) 1994-1997
28.   NSF Summer Research Award (Biological Rhythms) 1993
29.   Senior Thesis First Prize, Barnard College 1992
30.   Graduated Magna cum Laude, Barnard College 1992
31.   Phi Beta Kappa Honor Society 1992
Publications

Publications 2006–Present

106 total publications (includes 5 chapters and 23 reviews)

Link to Google Scholar
https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&user=QyfMMUoAAAAJ

Link to papers in PubMed:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/myncbi/1pczDu5k4GPQ3/bibliography/48108911/public/?sort=date&direction=descending

Graduate, undergraduate, and volunteer trainees from the Leak laboratory are highlighted in red

Papers published since 2006 as *corresponding author and/or first author (middle-author papers appear below this section):

  1. Leak RK*, Calabrese EJ, Kozumbo WJ, Gidday JM, Johnson TE, Mitchell JR, Ozaki CK, Wetzker R, Bast A, Belz RG, Botker HE, Koch SE, Mattson MP, Simon RP, Jirtle RL, and Anderson ME (2018) Enhancing and extending biological performance and resilience. Invited white paper stemming from Air Force-sponsored workshop. Dose-Response. In press
  2. Leak RK* (2018) Conditioning against the pathology of Parkinson's disease. Conditioning Medicine. Invited Review for the American Association of Conditioning Medicine. 1(3):85-104
  3. Weilnau JN, Carcella MA, Miner KM, Bhatia TN, Hutchison DF, Pant DB, Nouraei N, and Leak RK* (2017) Evidence for cross-hemispheric preconditioning in experimental Parkinson's disease. Brain Structure and Function. 223: 1255-1273
  4. Nouraei N, Mason DM, Miner KM, Carcella MA, Bhatia TN, Dumm B, Soni D, Johnson DA, Luk KC, and Leak RK* (2017) Critical appraisal of pathology transmission in the α-synuclein fibril model of Lewy body disorders. Experimental Neurology. 299: 172-196
  5. Cai W, Yang T, Liu H, Han L, Zhang K, Hu X, Zhang X, Yin K-J, Gao Y, Bennett MVL, Leak RK*, and Chen J* (2017) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ): A master gatekeeper in CNS injury and repair. Progress in Neurobiology. Accepted and in press. *co-corresponding authors
  6. Gleixner AM, Hutchison DF, Sannino S, Bhatia TN, Leak LC, Flaherty PT, Wipf P, Brodsky JL, and Leak RK* (2017) N-acetyl-L-cysteine protects astrocytes against proteotoxicity without recourse to glutathione. Molecular Pharmacology. 92: 564-575
  7. Mason DM, Nouraei N, Pant DB, Miner KM, Hutchison DF, Luk KC, Stolz JF, and Leak RK* (2016) Transmission of α-synucleinopathy from olfactory structures deep into the temporal lobe. Molecular Neurodegeneration. 11: 49
  8. Heinemann SD, Posimo JM, Mason DM, Hutchison DF, and Leak RK* (2016) Synergistic stress exacerbation in hippocampal neurons: Evidence favoring the dual hit hypothesis of neurodegeneration. Hippocampus. 26: 980-994
  9. Nouraei N, Zarger L, Weilnau JN, Han J, Mason DM, and Leak RK* (2016) Investigation of the therapeutic potential of N-acetyl cysteine and the tools used to define nigrostriatal degeneration in vivo. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 296:19-30
  10. Liu H, Leak RK*, Hu X* (2016) Neurotransmitter receptors on microglia. Stroke and Vascular Neurology. 1: e000012. *co-corresponding authors
  11. Gleixner AM, Posimo JM, Pant DB, Henderson MP, and Leak RK* (2015) Astrocytes surviving severe stress can still protect neighboring neurons from proteotoxic injury. Molecular Neurobiology. 53: 4939-4960
  12. Posimo JM, Weilnau JN, Gleixner AM, Broeren MT, Weiland N, Brodsky JL, Wipf P, and Leak RK* (2015) Heat shock protein defenses in the neo- and allocortex of the telencephalon. Neurobiology of Aging. 36: 1924-1937
  13. Leak RK*, O'Donnell LA*, and Surratt CK (2015) Using active learning to teach pharmacology graduate students how to write an NIH grant application. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 79: 138
  14. Crum TS, Gleixner AM, Posimo JM, Mason DM, Broeren MT, Heinemann SD, Wipf P, Brodsky JL, and Leak RK* (2015) Heat shock protein responses to aging and proteotoxicity in the olfactory bulb. Journal of Neurochemistry. 133: 180-794. Publication chosen for cover image. See bottom of this page.
  15. Leak RK, Li P, Zhang F, Sulaiman H, Weng, Zhongfang, Wang G, Stetler RA, Shi Y, Cao G, Gao Y, and Chen J (2015) APE1 upregulation reduces oxidative DNA damage and protects hippocampal neurons from ischemic injury. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 22: 135 - 148
  16. Gleixner AM, Pulugulla SH, Pant DB, Posimo JM, Crum TS, and Leak RK* (2014) Impact of aging on heat shock protein expression in the substantia nigra and striatum of the female rat. Cell Tissue Research. 357: 43-54
  17. Unnithan AS, Jiang Y, Rumble JL, Pulugulla SH, Posimo JM, Gleixner AM, and Leak RK* (2014) N-acetyl cysteine prevents synergistic, severe toxicity from two hits of oxidative stress. Neuroscience Letters. 560: 71-76
  18. Posimo JM, Unnithan AS, Gleixner AM, Choi HJH, Jiang Y, Pulugulla SH, and Leak RK* (2014) Viability assays for cells in culture. Journal of Visualized Experiments. 83: e50645, doi:10.3791/50645 (Invited research article)
  19. Leak RK* (2014) Adaptation and sensitization to proteotoxic stress. Dose-Response. 12: 24-56 (Invited review article)
  20. Leak RK* (2014) Heat shock proteins in neurodegenerative disorders and aging. Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling. 4: 293-310 (Invited review article)
  21. Jiang Y, Rumble JL, Gleixner AM, Unnithan AS, Pulugulla SH, Posimo JM, Choi HJH, Crum TS, Pant DB, and Leak RK* (2013) N-acetyl cysteine blunts proteotoxicity in a heat shock protein-dependent manner. Neuroscience. 255: 19-32
  22. Posimo JM, Titler AM, Choi H, Unnithan AS, and Leak RK* (2013) Neocortex and allocortex respond differentially to cellular stress in vitro and aging in vivo. PLoS One 8: e58596
  23. Titler AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK* (2013) Astrocyte plasticity revealed by adaptations to severe proteotoxic stress. Cell Tissue Research 352: 427-443
  24. Leak RK, Zhang L, Luo Y, Li P, Zhao H, Liu X, Ling F, Jia J, Chen J, and Ji X (2013) Peroxiredoxin 2 battles PARP1- and p53-dependent pro-death pathways following ischemic injury. Stroke 44: 1124-1134
  25. Leak RK, Zhang L, Stetler RA, Weng Z, Li P, Atkins GB, Gao Y, and Chen J (2013) HSP27 protects the blood-brain barrier against ischemia-induced loss of integrity. CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets 12: 325-337
  26. Leak RK*, Garbett K, Dettmer AM, Mirnics K, Zhang Z, and Cameron JL (2012) Physical activity is linked to ceruloplasmin in the striatum of intact, but not MPTP-treated primates. Cell Tissue Research 350: 401-407
  27. Unnithan AS, Choi H, Titler AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK* (2012) Rescue from a two hit high-throughput model of neurodegeneration with N-acetyl cysteine. Neurochemistry International 61: 356-368
  28. Leak RK* and Moore RY (2012) Innervation of ventricular and periventricular compartments. Brain Research 1463: 51-62
  29. Leak RK*, Castro SL, Jaumotte JD, Smith AD, and Zigmond MJ (2010) Assaying multiple biochemical variables from the same tissue sample. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 191: 234-238
  30. Leak RK and Zigmond MJ (2008) Endogenous defenses that protect dopamine neurons: studies with 6-OHDA models of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's Disease: Pathogenic and Therapeutic Insights from Toxin and Genetic Models. (Ed. R Nass and S Przedborski). Elsevier. Ch 13: 173 - 194
  31. Leak RK*, Zigmond MJ, and Liou AKF (2008) Adaptation to chronic MG132 reduces oxidative toxicity by a CuZnSOD-dependent mechanism. Journal of Neurochemistry 106: 860-874
  32. Leak RK, Liou KF, and Zigmond MJ (2006) Effects of sublethal 6-hydroxydopamine on the response to subsequent oxidative stress in dopaminergic cells: evidence for preconditioning. Journal of Neurochemistry 99: 1151-1163

Middle-author papers on collaborative efforts

  1. Hasan M, Leak RK, Stratford RE, Zlotos DP, and Witt-Enderby PA (2018) Drug conjugates-and emerging approach to treat breast cancer. Pharmacology Research and Perspectives. Epub ahead of print
  2. Hu X, Leak RK, Thomson AW, Yu F, Xia Y, Wechsler LR, Chen J (2018) Harnessing the power of dynamic immune responses in CNS disorders: The promise and limitations of immune cell-based therapies. Nature Reviews-Neurology. Accepted and in press
  3. Yang T, Sun Y, Mao Lo, Zhang M, Li Q, Zhang L, Shi Y, Leak RK, Chen J, and Zhang F (2018) Brain ischemic preconditioning protects against ischemic injury and preserves the blood-brain barrier via oxidative signaling and Nrf2 activation. Redox Biology. Epub ahead of print
  4. Zhang Y, Liu G, Wang Y, Su Y, Leak RK, Cao G (2018) Procalcitonin as a biomarker for malignant cerebral edema in massive cerebral infarction. Scientific Reports 8: 993
  5. Li P, Stetler AR, Leak RK, Shi Y, Li Y, Yu W, Bennett MVL, and Chen J (2017) Oxidative stress and DNA damage after cerebral ischemia: Potential therapeutic targets to repair the genome and improve stroke recovery. Neuropharmacology. Epub ahead of print
  6. Xu N, Tamadon A, Liu Y, Ma T, Leak RK, Chen J, and Feng Y (2017) Fast free-of-acrylamide clearing tissue (FACT)-an optimized new protocol for rapid, high-resolution imaging of three-dimensional brain tissue. Scientific Reports. 7: 9895
  7. Liu Z, Ran Y, Huang S, Wen S, Zhang W, Liu X, Ji Z, Geng X, Ji X, Du H, Leak RK, and Hu X (2017) Curcumin protects against ischemic stroke by titrating microglia/macrophage polarization. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 9: 233
  8. Mao L, Li P, Zhu W, Cai W, Liu Z, Wang Y, Luo W, Stetler RA, Leak RK, Yu W, Gao Y, Chen J, and Hu X (2017) Regulatory T cells ameliorate tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain hemorrhage after stroke. Brain. 140: 1914-1931
  9. Yang Y, Liu H, Zhang H, Ye Q, Wang J, Yang, Mao L, Zhu W, Leak RK, Xiao B, Lu B, Chen J, and Hu X (2017) ST2/IL-33-dependent microglial response limits acute ischemic brain injury. Journal of Neuroscience. 37: 4692-4704
  10. Nora GJ, Harun R, Fine DF, Hutchison D, Grobart AC, Stezoski JP, Munoz M, Kochanek PM, Leak RK, Drabek T, and Wagner AK (2017) Ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest produces a chronic striatal hyperdopaminergic state that is worsened by methylphenidate treatment. Journal of Neurochemistry. 142: 305-322
  11. Sun Y, Yang T, Leak RK, Chen JH, and Zhang F (2017) Preventive and protective roles of dietary Nrf2 activators against central nervous system diseases. CNS Neurological Disorders and Drug Targets. 16:326-338
  12. Shi Y, Jiang X, Zhang L, Pu H, Hu X, Zhang W, Cai W. Gao Y, Leak RK, Keep RK, Bennett MVL, and Chen J (2017) Endothelium-targeted overexpression of heat shock protein 27 ameliorates blood-brain disruption after ischemic brain injury. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114: E1243-E1252
  13. Wang Y, Ji X, Leak RK, Chen G, and Cao G (2016) Stem cell therapies in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. Ageing Research Reviews. S1568-1637(16)30147-7
  14. Liu H, Yang Y, Xia Y, Zhu W, Leak RK, Wei Z, Wang J, and Hu X (2016) Aging of cerebral white matter. Ageing Research Reviews. S1568-1637(16)30119-2
  15. Yang T, Sun Y, Lu Z, Leak RK, and Zhang F (2016) The impact of cerebrovascular aging on vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. Ageing Research Reviews. S1568-1637(16)30118-0
  16. Talbot JN, Geffert LM, Jorvig JE, Goldstein RI, Nielsen CL, Wolters NE, Amos ME, Munro CA, Dallman E, Meren M, Tanda G, Katz J, Indarte M, Madura JD, Choi H, Leak RK, and Surratt CK (2016) Rapid and sustained antidepressant properties of an NMDA antagonist/monoamine reuptake inhibitor identified via transporter-based virtual screening. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 150-151: 22-30
  17. Parra LA, Baust TB, Smith AD, Jaumotte JD, Zigmond MJ, Torres S, Leak RK, Pino JA, and Torres GE (2016) The molecular chaperone Hsc70 interacts with tyrosine hydroxylase to regulate enzyme activity and synaptic vesicle localization. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 291: 17510-17522
  18. Wu Y, Wang J, Shi Y, Pu H, Leak RK, Liou AK, Badlyak SF, Liu Z, Zhang J, Chen J, and Chen L (2016) Implantation of brain-derived extracellular matrix enhances neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury. Cell Transplantation. 26:1224-1234
  19. Stetler RA, Gao Y, Leak RK, Weng Z, Shi Y, Zhang L, Pu H, Zhang F, Hu X, Hassan S, Ferguson C, Homanics GE, Cao G, Bennett MVL, and Chen J (2016) APE1/Ref1 facilitates recovery of gray and white matter and neurological function after mild stroke injury. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113: E3558-E3567
  20. Zhang W, Zhang H, Mu H, Zhu W, Jiang X, Hu X, Shi Y, Leak RK, Dong Q, Chen J, and Gao Y (2016) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids mitigate blood-brain barrier disruption after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Neurobiology of Disease. 91: 37-46
  21. Shi Y, Zhang L, Pu H, Mao L, Hu X, Jiang X, Xu N, Stetler RA, Zhang F, Liu X, Leak RK, Keep RF, Ji X, and Chen J (2016) Rapid endothelial cytoskeletal reorganization enables early blood-brain barrier disruption and long-term ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. Nature Communications. 7: 10523
  22. Liu X, Liu J, Zhao S, Zhang H, Cai W, Ji X, Leak RK, Gao Y, Chen J, and Hu X (2015) Interleukin-4 is essential for microglia/macrophage M2 polarization and long-term recovery after cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 47: 498-504
  23. Zhang W, Liu J, Hu X, Li P, Leak RK, Gao Y, and Chen J (2015) n-3 PUFAs reduce neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury by promoting phosphatidylserine formation and Akt signaling. Stroke. 46: 2943-2950
  24. Liu Z, Chen C, Li X, Ran Y, Xu T, Zhang Y, Geng X, Zhang Y, Du H, Leak RK, Chen J, Ji X, and Hu X (2015) Remote ischemic preconditioning-mediated neuroprotection against stroke is associated with significant alterations in peripheral immune responses. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics. 22: 43-52
  25. Han L, Cai W, Mao L, Liu J, Li P, Leak RK, Xu Y, Hu X, and Chen J (2015) Rosiglitazone promotes white matter integrity and long-term functional recovery after focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 46: 2628-2636
  26. Chen X, Zhao S, Song Y, Shi Y, Leak RK, and G Cao (2015) The role of nicotinamidephosphoribosyltransferase in cerebral ischemia. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 15: 2211-2221
  27. Suenaga J, Hu X, Pu H, Shi Y, Hassan SH, Xu M, Leak RK, Stetler RA, Gao Y, and Chen J (2015) White matter injury and microglia/macrophage polarization are strongly linked with age-related long-term deficits in neurological function after stroke. Experimental Neurology. 272: 109-119
  28. Zhang W. Wang H, Zhang H, Leak RK, Shi Y, Hu X, Gao Y, and Chen J (2015) Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids robustly promotes neurovascular restorative dynamics and improves neurological functions after stroke. Experimental Neurology. 272: 170-180
  29. Wang J, Xia J, Zhang F, Shi Y, Wu Y, Pu H, Liou A, Leak RK, Yu X, Chen L, and Chen J (2015) Galectin 1-secreting neural stem cells elicit long-term neuroprotection against ischemic brain injury. Scientific Reports. 5: 9621
  30. H Shi, Hu X, Leak RK, Shi Y, An C, Suenaga J, Gao Y, and Chen J (2015) Demyelination as a rational therapeutic target for ischemic or traumatic brain injury. Experimental Neurology. 272: 17-25
  31. Wang G, Shi Y, Jiang X, Leak RK, Hu X, Wu Y, Pu H, Li W, Tang B, Wang Y, Gao Y, Zheng P, Bennett MVL, and Chen J (2015) HDAC inhibition prevents white matter injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization through the GSK3β/PTEN/Akt axis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112: 1853-2858
  32. Shi H, Wang H, Pu H, Shi Y, Zhang J, Zhang W, Wang G, Hu X, Leak RK, Chen J, and Gao Y (2014) Ethyl pyruvate protects against blood-brain barrier damage and improves long-term neurological outcomes in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics. 21: 374-384
  33. Chen S, Zhang H, Pu H, Wang G, Li W, Leak RK, Chen J, Liou AK, Hu X (2014) n-3 PUFA supplementation benefits microglial responses to myelin pathology. Scientific Reports 4: 7458
  34. Liu ZJ, Chen C, Li FW, Shen JM, Yang Y, Leak RK, Ji X, Du H, and Hu X (2014) Splenic responses in ischemic stroke: New insights into stroke pathology. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics. 21: 320-326
  35. Hu X, Leak RK, Shi Y, Suenaga J, Gao Y, Zheng P, and Chen J (2014) Microglia and macrophage polarization - new opportunities for brain repair. Nature Reviews Neurology. 11: 56-64 (from the publishers of Nature, impact factor 14.1)
  36. Zhao S, Li F, Leak RK, Chen J, and Hu X (2014) Regulation of neuroinflammation through programmed death-1/programmed death ligand signaling in neurological disorders. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 8: 271
  37. Jing Z, Xing J, Chen X, Stetler RA, Weng Z, Gan Y, Zhang F, Gao Y, Chen J, Leak RK, Cao G (2014) Neuronal NAMPT is released following cerebral ischemia and protects against white matter injury. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. 34: 1613-1621
  38. Hu X, Liou AKF, Leak RK, Xu M, An C, Suenaga J, Shi Y, Gao Y, Zheng P, and Chen J (2014) Neurobiology of microglial action in CNS injuries: receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms and functional roles. Progress in Neurobiology. 119-120C60-84
  39. Wang J, Shi Y, Zhang L, Zhang F, Hu X, Zhang W, Leak RK, Gao Y, Chen L, and Chen J (2014) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance cerebral angiogenesis and provide long-term protection after stroke. Neurobiology of Disease 68: 91-103
  40. Stetler RA, Leak RK, Gan Y, Peiying L, Hu X, Jing Z, Chen J, Zigmond MJ, and Gao Y (2014) Preconditioning provides neuroprotection in models of CNS diseases: Paradigms and clinical significance. Progress in Neurobiology. 114: 58-83
  41. Zhang M, Wang S, Mao L, Leak RK, Shi Y, Zhang W, Hu X, Sun B, Cao G, Gao Y, Xu Y, Chen J, and Zhang F (2014) Omega-3 fatty acids protect the brain against ischemic injury by activating Nrf2 and upregulating heme oxygenase-1. Journal of Neuroscience. 34: 1903-1015
  42. Li P, Gan Y, Mao L, Leak RK, Chen J, and Hu X (2014) The critical roles of immune cells in acute brain injuries. Immunological Mechanisms and Therapies in Brain Injuries and Stroke (Ed. Chen J, Hu X, Stenzel-Poore M, Zhang JH). Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research 6: 9-25
  43. Stetler RA, Leak RK, Jing Z, Hu X, Gao Y, Cao G, and Chen J (2014) The interplay between white matter, mitochondria, and neuroprotection. White Matter Injury in Stroke and CNS Disease (Ed. Baltan S, Carmichael ST, Matute C, Xi G, and Zhang JH). Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research. 4: 539-554
  44. An C, Shi Y, Li P, Hu X, Gan Y, Stetler RA, Leak RK, Gao Y, Sun B, Zheng P, and Chen J (2013) Molecular dialogs between the ischemic brain and the peripheral immune system: Dualistic roles in injury and repair. Progress in Neurobiology. 115: 1-5
  45. Li P, Mao L, Zhou G, Leak RK, Sub BL, Chen J, and Hu X (2013) Adoptive regulatory T-cell therapy preserves systemic immune homeostasis after cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 44: 3509-3515
  46. Hu X, Zhang F, Leak RK, Zhang W, Iwai M, Stetler RA, Dai Y, Zhao A, Gao Y, and Chen J (2013) Transgenic overproduction of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids provides neuroprotection and enhances endogenous neurogenesis after stroke. Current Molecular Medicine 13:1465-73
  47. Wang G, Guo Y, Hu X, Zhang L, Mao L, Jiang X, Liou AKF, Leak RK, Gao Y, and Chen J (2013) Microglia/macrophage polarization dynamics in white matter injury following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 33: 1865-1874 doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2013.146
  48. Pu H, Guo Y, Zhang W, Huang L, Wang G, Liou AKF, Zhang J, Zhang P, Leak RK, Wang Y, Chen J, Gao Y (2013) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation improves neurological recovery and attenuates white matter injury following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 33: 1474-1484 doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2013.108
  49. Stetler RA, Leak RK, Gao Y, and Chen J (2013) The dynamics of the mitochondrial organelle as a potential therapeutic target. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 33: 22-32 (Invited review article)
  50. Zhang M, An C, Gao Y, Leak RK, Chen J, and Zhang F (2013) Emerging roles of Nrf2 and phase II enzymes in neuroprotection. Progress in Neurobiology 100: 30-47
  51. Zhao H, Luo Y, Liu X, Wang R, Yan F, Liu X, Li S, Leak RK, and Ji X (2013) Ischemic post-conditioning partially reverses cell cycle reactivity following ischemia/reperfusion injury; a genome wide survey. CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets 12: 350-359
  52. Wang JY, Liou AK, Ren ZH, Zhang L, Brown BN, Cui XT, Badylak SF, Cai YN, Guan YQ, Leak RK, Chen J, Ji X, and Chen L (2013) Neurorestorative effect of urinary bladder matrix mediated neural stem cell transplantation following traumatic brain injury in rats. CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets 12: 371-380
  53. Zhang M, Wang H, Zhao J, Chen C, Leak RK, Xu Y, Vosler P, Chen J, Gao Y, and Zhang F (2013) Drug-induced hypothermia in stroke models; does it always protect? CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets 12: 371-380
  54. Wang G, Jiang X, Pu H, Zhang W, An C, Hu X, Kiou AKF, Leak RK, Gao Y, and Chen J (2013) Scriptaid, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, protects against traumatic brain injury via modulation of PTEN and Akt pathway. Neurotherapeutics 10: 124-142
  55. Zhang M, Li W, Leak RK, Chen J, and Zhang F (2013) ATP induces mild hypothermia in rats but has a strikingly detrimental impact on focal cerebral ischemia. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 33(1). doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2012.146.
  56. Stetler RA, Leak RK, Gao YQ, and Chen J (2012) Mitochondrial biogenesis contributes to ischemic neuroprotection afforded by LPS preconditioning. Journal of Neurochemistry 123(S2): 125-137 (Invited research article)
  57. Hu X, Li P, Guo Y, Wang H, Leak RK, Chen S, Gao Y, and Chen J (2012) Microglia/macrophage polarization dynamics reveal novel mechanism of injury expansion after focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 43: 3063-3070
  58. Zhang F, Wang S, Weng Z, Li P, Gan Y, Zhang L, Zhang M, Cao G, Gao Y, Leak RK, Sporn MB, and Chen J (2012). Pharmacological induction of heme oxygenase-1 by a triterpenoid protects against ischemic neuronal injury. Stroke 43: 1390-1397
  59. Mitchell AC, Leak RK, Garbett K, Zigmond MJ, Cameron JL, and Mirnics K (2012) Physical activity-associated gene expression signature in non-human primate motor cortex. Obesity 20: 692-698
  60. Li P, Leak RK, Gan Y, Hu X, Stetler RA, and Chen J (2012) How do subcellular organelles participate in preconditioning-conferred neuroprotection? Innate Tolerance in the CNS. Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research. (Ed. J Gidday). Springer. 19: 387-428 (Invited review article)
  61. Hu X, Zhang M, Leak RK, Gan Y, Li P, Gao Y, and Chen J (2012) Delivery of neurotherapeutics across the blood brain barrier in stroke. Current Pharmaceutical Design 18: 3704-3720
  62. Mitchell AC, Leak RK, Zigmond MJ, Cameron JL, and Mirnics K (2011) Gene transcripts associated with BMI in the motor cortex and caudate nucleus of calorie-restricted monkeys. Genomics 99: 144-151
  63. Egaña L, Cuevas R, Baust T, Parra L, Leak RK, Hochendoner S, Peña K, Quiroz M, Hong W, Dorostkar M, Janz R, Sitte H, and Torres G (2009) Physical and functional interaction between the dopamine transporter and the synaptic vesicle protein Synaptogyrin-3. Journal of Neuroscience 29:4592-604
  64. Requena DF, Parra LA, Baust TB, Quiroz M, Leak RK, Garcia-Olivares J, Torres GE. (2009) The molecular chaperone Hsc70 interacts with the vesicular monoamine transporter-2. Journal of Neurochemistry 110: 581-594
  65. Zigmond MJ, Cameron JL, Leak RK, Mirnics K, Russell VA, Smeyne RJ and Smith AD (2009) Triggering endogenous neuroprotective processes through exercise in models of dopamine deficiency. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders: WFN World Congress on Parkinson's Disease Supplement 3:S42-45
  66. Liou AKF, Leak RK, Li L, and Zigmond MJ (2008) Wild-type LRRK2 but not its mutant attenuates stress-induced death via ERK pathway. Neurobiology of Disease 32: 116-124
  67. Lindgren NL, Leak RK, Smith AD, and Zigmond MJ (2008) Role of ERK in the action of GDNF in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neuroscience Research 86: 2039-2049
  68. Lin E, Cavanaugh JE, Leak RK, Perez RG, and Zigmond MJ (2008) Rapid activation of ERK by 6-hydroxydopamine promotes survival of dopaminergic cells. Journal of Neuroscience Research 86: 108-117

Presentations 2006–Present

Out of 101 Total Presentations

  1. Leak RK (2018) Enhancing the amplitude the duration of hormesis-induced resilience: Part II. The 17th Annual International Conference on Dose Response. Plenary Session with Walt Kozumbo. University of Massachusetts, MA
  2. Miner KM, Mason DM, Hutchison DF, Luk KC, and Leak RK* (2017) N-acetyl cysteine reduces Lewy pathology in some but not all brain regions in experimental Parkinson's disease. 20th Annual Summer Research Symposium. Abstract 24. Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  3. Dumm B, Nouraei N, Mason DM, Miner KM, Carcella MA, Bhatia TB, Soni D, Shon M, Johnson DA, Luk KC, and Leak RK* (2017) Impact of alpha-synucleinopathy on hippocampus synaptic markers in an animal model of Lewy body disorders. 20th Annual Summer Research Symposium. Abstract 23. Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  4. Miner KM, Mason DM, Hutchison DF, and Leak RK* (2017) N-acetyl-L-cysteine mitigates Lewy-like pathology in experimental Parkinson's disease. National Conference on Undergraduate Research. Memphis, TN
  5. Shi Y, Jiang X, Zhang L, Pu H, Zhang W, Gao Y, Hu X, Leak RK, Keep RF, Bennett MV, and Chen J (2017) Endothelial-targeted overexpression of heat shock protein 27 ameliorates rapid blood brain barrier impairment and improves long term outcomes after ischemia and reperfusion. International Stroke Conference. Houston, TX
  6. Jiang X, Zhang L, Shi Y, Zhu L, Leak RK, Keep RF, Bennett MVL, and Chen J (2017) Paracellular mechanisms contribute to early blood-brain barrier leakage after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Brain 2017. Berlin, Germany
  7. Pu H, Jiang X, Shi Y, Wei Z, Gao Y, Leak RK, Hu X, and Chen J (2017) Delayed treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids still promotes long-term neurovascular restoration, white matter integrity, and behavioral outcomes after ischemic stroke. Brain 2017. Berlin, Germany
  8. Shi Y, Ma S, Lu Z, Pu H, Hu X, Stetler RA, Hitchens TK, Leak RK, Bennett MVL, and Chen J (2017) Tissue plasminogen activator is essential for axonal sprouting and functional recovery after ischemic stroke. Brain 2017. Berlin, Germany
  9. Leak RK*, Weilnau JN, Nouraei N, Hutchison DF, Miner KM, Carcella MA (2016) Evidence for cross-hemispheric preconditioning in experimental Parkinson's disease. Society for Neuroscience 245.17. San Diego, CA
  10. Mason D, Nouraei N, Han J, Pant D, Miner K, Luk J, Stolz J, Leak RK* (2016) Transmission of α-synucleinopathy from olfactory structures deep into the temporal lobe. Society for Neuroscience 310.14. San Diego, CA
  11. Mason DM, Nouraei N, Han J, Pant DB, Miner KM, Luk KC, Stolz JF, and Leak RK* (2016) Transmission of a-synucleinopathy from olfactory structures deep into the temporal lobe. Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Symposium. Abstract 39. Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA. **Won 2nd prize for best poster
  12. Weilnau JN, Carcella MA, Miner KM, Nouraei N, Hutchison DF, Pant DB, and Leak RK* (2016) Evidence for cross-hemispheric preconditioning in Parkinson's disease. Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA. Abstract 45. Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA
  13. Han J, Nouraei N, Zarger L, Weilnau J, Mason D, Leak RK* (2016) N-acetyl cysteine provides transient neuroprotection against oxidative stress in vivo. 19th Annual Summer Research Symposium. Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  14. Do T, Pant D, and Leak RK* (2016) Endogenous defenses against severe oxidative stress in astrocytes. 19th Annual Summer Research Symposium. Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  15. Carcella M, Weilnau J, Nouraei N, and Leak RK* (2016) Evidence for cross-hemispheric preconditioning in experimental Parkinson's disease. 19th Annual Summer Research Symposium. Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  16. Shi Y, Pu H, Hu X, Stetler RA, Leak RK, Zheng P, Gao Y, and Chen J (2016) Aberrant activation of ASK1 mediates proinflammatory and neurotoxic microglial responses after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. International Stroke Conference. Los Angeles, CA. Won the Stroke Basic Science Award
  17. Mason DM, Nouraei N, Han J, Pant DB, Miner KM, Gleixner AM, and Leak RK* (2015) Long-distance transmission of Parkinson's pathology from olfactory structures deep into the central nervous system. Graduate Research Symposium. Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  18. Healy C, Krainz T, Pant DB, Leak RK, and Wipf P (2015) Synthesis and evaluation of nitroxide prodrugs in astrocyte protection. Science 2015. University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, PA
  19. Pant DB, Gleixner AM, and Leak RK* (2015) Severely stressed astrocytes tolerate paraquat despite inhibition of multiple endogenous defenses. Science 2015. University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, PA
  20. Rhodes, D, Cavanaugh J, Janjic J, Leak R, Boni R, Buckner I, Covvey J, Giannetti V, Harrold MW, Kossol J, and Stewart A (2015) A cross-curricular lab experience for first professional year students: A patient case-based approach. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and Association of Faculties of Pharmacy of Canada (AFPC) annual meeting. National Harbor, MD
  21. Wang G, Shi Y, Jiang X, Leak RK, Hu X, Wu Y, Pu H, Wang Y, Gao Y, Zheng P, Bennett M, and Chen J (2015) Histone deacetylase inhibition prevents white matter injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization through the GSK3beta/PTEN/Akt axis. Brain 2015. XXVIIth International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism and Function. Vancouver, Canada
  22. Shi Y, Pu H, Hu X, Stetler RA, Leak RK, Zheng P, Gao Y, and Chen J (2015) Aberrant activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic microglial responses after ischemic/reperfusion injury. Brain 2015. XXVIIth International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism and Function. Vancouver, Canada
  23. Shi Y, Zhang L, Mao L, Pu H, Hu X, Stetler RA, Gao Y, Leak RK, Keep RF, and Chen J (2015) Endothelial cytoskeletal reorganization contributes to surprisingly early blood-brain barrier disruption and permanent ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. Brain 2015. XXVIIth International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism and Function. Vancouver, Canada
  24. Leak RK* (2015) Neuroscience and Hormesis. Invited seminar. Air Force Planning Meeting. Amherst, MA
  25. Leak RK*, Posimo JM, Broeren MT, Weiland NL, Heinemann SD, Mason DM, Hutchison DF, Luk KC, Lee VM, and Ayton S (2015) Brain region of origin determines neuronal vulnerability to α-synuclein+ inclusion formation and the therapeutic potential of extracellular ceruloplasmin. Gordon Conference: Parkinson's Disease. Data Blitz oral presentation and poster. Colby-Sawyer College, New London, NH
  26. Leak RK*, Gleixner AM, Pant DB, and Posimo JM (2015) Astrocytes remain neuroprotective even after severe stress and loss of glutathione defenses. International Dose-Response Society. University of Massachusetts. Amherst, MA
  27. Pant DB, Hutchison D, Wipf P, and Leak RK* (2015) Protecting astrocytes from the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Summer Undergraduate Research Symposium. University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, PA
  28. Hutchison D, Mason DM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK* Impact of N-acetyl cysteine on alpha-synuclein pathology in experimental Parkinson's disease. Undergraduate Research Program Summer Symposium. Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  29. Heinemann SD, Posimo JM, Weiland NL, Brodsky JL, Wipf P, and Leak RK* (2015) Hippocampal proteotoxicity is mitigated by N-acetyl cysteine. Undergraduate Research Program Summer Symposium. Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  30. Pant DB and Leak RK* (2015) Severely stressed astrocytes can tolerate paraquat-induced oxidative stress better than naïve astrocytes. University Honors College Undergraduate Research Fair. University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, PA
  31. Posimo JM, Gleixner AM, Broeren MT, Weiland NL, Brodsky JL, Wipf P, and Leak RK* (2015) Impact of aging and proteotoxic stress on heat shock protein defenses in the neo- and allocortex of the telencephalic edifice. 9th Annual Aging Institute Research Day. University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, PA
  32. Pant DB, Gleixner AM, and Leak RK* (2015) Astrocytes can adapt to severe oxidative stress. University of Pittsburgh Undergraduate Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA
  33. Leak RK*, Gleixner AM, Unnithan AS, Choi HJH, Weilnau JN (2014) Adaptation or sensitization to stress is dependent upon changes in glutathione. Society for Neuroscience. 391.07. Nanosymposium presentation. Washington, D.C.
  34. Posimo JM, Gleixner AM, and Leak RK* (2014) Selective vulnerability in the telencephalic cortex: Implications for topographic neurodegeneration. Society for Neuroscience. 693.21. Washington, D.C.
  35. Gleixner AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK* (2014) N-acetyl cysteine protects primary cortical astrocytes and neurons against proteotoxic stress. Society for Neuroscience. 305.08. Washington, D.C.
  36. Nouraei N, Leak RK, and Johnson DA (2014) The effect of hippocampal and/or striatal injection of a-synuclein fibrils on novel object and novel place recognition in rats. Society for Neuroscience. 359.17. Washington, D.C.
  37. Han L, Shi Y, Zhang L, Zhang F, Hu X, Zhang W, Leak RK, Gao Y, and Chen J (2014) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance cerebral angiogenesis and provide long-term protection after stroke. Society for Neuroscience. 804.22. Washington, D.C.
  38. Jing Z, Chen X, Stetler RA, Weng Z, Gan Y, Zhang F, Gao Y, Leak RK, Chen J, and Cao G (2014) Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase protects white matter injury in cerebral ischemia. Society for Neuroscience. 805.09. Washington, D.C.
  39. Gleixner AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK* (2014) Severely stressed astrocytes can still protect neighboring neurons. 6th Annual American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA. Abstract 25. ** Won 1st prize for best poster
  40. Nouraei N, Weilnau J, , Leak RK* (2014) Testing antioxidant therapies in acute and chronic animal models of Parkinson's disease. 6th Annual American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Abstract 43. Pittsburgh, PA
  41. Posimo JM, Gleixner AM, Brodsky JL, Wipf P, and Leak RK* (2014) Allocortex is more vulnerable to loss of heat shock protein activity than neocortex. 6th Annual American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Abstract 45. Pittsburgh, PA
  42. Leak RK* (2014) Topography of vulnerability to alpha-synuclein fibrils in the cerebral cortex. Michael J. Fox Foundation. New York City, NY
  43. Li P, Leak RK, Zhang F, Cao G, Gao Y, and Chen J (2014) APE1 upregulation reduces oxidative DNA damage and protects hippocampal neurons from ischemic injury. International Stroke Conference 45: A8. San Diego, CA
  44. Gleixner AM, Serpico E, Pant DB, Posimo JM, and Leak RK* (2014) Astrocyte preconditioning by severe stress is glutathione- but not heat shock protein 70-dependent. 13th annual meeting of the International Dose-Response Society. University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA
  45. Jiang Y, Rumble JL, Unnithan AS, Pulugulla SH, Choi HJH, Posimo JP, Gleixner AM, Leak RK* (2014) N-acetyl cysteine blunts impact of proteasome inhibition in a glutathione-independent manner. American Pharmacists Association National Conference. Orlando, FL
  46. Leak RK*, Posimo JM, and Gleixner AM (2014) Defensive responses to cellular stress and aging in the neocortex vs allocortex of the telencephalon. Keystone symposium on Parkinson's Disease: Genetics, Mechanisms and Therapeutics. Keystone, CO
  47. Gleixner AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK* (2013) N-acetyl cysteine decreases protein misfolding stress in astrocytes and neurons. 5th Annual American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA **Won 2nd prize for best poster
  48. Crum TS, Gleixner AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK* (2013) Chaperones in the olfactory bulb. 5th Annual American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA
  49. Posimo JM, Gleixner AM, and Leak RK* (2013) Defensive Responses to Cellular Stress and Aging in the Neocortex and Allocortex of the Telencephalon. 5th Annual American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA
  50. Nouraei N, Posimo JM, Flaherty PT, and Leak RK* (2013) Protecting neurons against proteotoxicity in vivo. 5th Annual American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA
  51. Leak RK* (2013) Severe stress in glial astrocytes; implications for neurodegenerative diseases. Invited speaker at Slippery Rock University Department of Chemistry. Slippery Rock, PA (2nd invitation to SRU)
  52. Leak RK* (2013) Astrocyte plasticity revealed by adaptations to severe proteotoxic stress. Invited speaker at Dose Response 2013: Implications for toxicology, medicine, and risk assessment. University of Massachussetts, Amherst, MA
  53. Zhang M, Li W, Leak RK, Chen J, and Zhang F (2013) Impact of ATP-induced mild hypothermia on focal cerebral ischemia in rats. International Stroke Conference, Abstract 44: TP109 Honolulu, HI
  54. Rumble JL and Leak RK* (2013) Heat shock protein 70 mediates protection of N-acetyl cysteine in neuronal cells. The 2013 Undergraduate Exhibition 303, p.17. Penn State University Park Campus. State College, PA.
  55. Jiang Y, Rumble JL, Posimo JM, Titler AM, and Leak RK* (2013) N-acetyl cysteine protects neuronal cells by a glutathione-independent and Hsp70-dependent mechanism. Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium. Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  56. Unnithan AS and Leak RK* (2013) High-throughput model of dual-hit hypothesis in neuronal cells; impact of glutathione. Undergraduate Research Fair, University Honors College. University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, PA
  57. Leak RK*, Titler AM, Posimo JM, (2013) Astrocyte plasticity revealed by adaptations to severe proteotoxic stress. Dose-Response 2013: Implications for Toxicology, Medicine, and Risk Assessment. p. 37. University of Massachussetts, Amherst, MA
  58. Weng Z, Zhang L, Stetler RA, Leak RK, Li P, Atkins GB, Gao Y, and Chen J (2013) Hsp27 protects the blood-brain barrier against ischemia-induced loss of integrity. Brain 2013. Shanghai, China
  59. Zhang F, Zhang M, Wang S, Zhang W, Leak RK, Gao Y, and Chen J (2013) Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation mediates the neuroprotective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against ischemic stroke. Brain 2013. Shanghai, China.
  60. Zhang L, Luo Y, Leak RK, Li P, Zhao H, Liu X, Ling F, Jia J, Chen J, and Ji X (2013) Peroxiredoxin 2 battles PARP1- and p53-dependent pro-death pathways following ischemic injury. Brain 2013. Shanghai, China.
  61. Wang J, Liou A, Ren Z, Zhang L, Brown B, Cui X, Badylak S, Cai Y, Guan Y, Leak RK, Chen J, Ji X, and Chen L (2013). Neurorestorative effect of urinary bladder matrix-mediated neural stem cell transplantation following traumatic brain injury in rats. Brain 2013. Shanghai, China.
  62. Wang G, Xu H, Guo Y, Jiang X, Pu H, Mao L, Liou AKF, Leak RK, Gao Y, and Chen J (2013) Histone deacetylase inhibition prevents white matter lesions by titrating microglia/macrophase polarization following experimental traumatic brain injury. Brain 2013. Shanghai, China
  63. Wang G, Hu X, Guo Y, Jiang X, Mao L, Liou AKF, Leak RK, Gao Y, and Chen J (2013) Histone deacetylase inhibition prevents white matter lesions by titrating microglia/macrophase polarization following experimental traumatic brain injury. Society for Neuroscience. 628.15. San Diego, CA
  64. Leak RK*, Posimo JM, Titler AM, Choi H, and Unnithan AS (2012) Differential neo- and allocortical vulnerability to proteasome inhibition in vitro mimics topography of human neurodegeneration. Gordon Conference on Neurobiology of Brain Disorders. Stonehill College, MA
  65. Choi H, Unnithan AS, Titler AM, Posimo AM, and Leak RK (2012) Synergistic toxicity of two proteasome inhibitor hits is dependent upon glutathione loss. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Clinical Meeting. 2-331. Las Vegas, NV
  66. Titler AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK (2012) Astrocyte plasticity revealed by adaptations to severe proteotoxic stress. Society for Neuroscience. 63.15. New Orleans, LA
  67. Posimo JM, Titler AM, and Leak RK (2012) Neocortical neurons are more vulnerable than allocortical neurons in a high-throughput model of proteotoxic stress. Society for Neuroscience. 64.18. New Orleans, LA
  68. Titler AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK (2012) Astrocyte plasticity revealed by adaptations to severe proteotoxic stress. 4th Annual American Association for Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA
  69. Posimo JM, Titler AM, and Leak RK (2012) Neocortical neurons are more vulnerable than allocortical neurons in a high-throughput model of proteotoxic stress. 4th Annual American Association for Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA
  70. Jiang Y, Rumble J, Posimo JM, Titler AM, Choi H, Unnithan AS, and Leak RK (2012) N-acetyl cysteine protects neuronal cells by a glutathione-independent and Hsp70-dependent mechanism. Summer Research Symposium. Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  71. Choi H, Unnithan AS, Titler AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK (2012) Rescue from a two hit high-throughput model of neurodegeneration with N-acetyl cysteine. Duquesne University Undergraduate Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA
  72. Harun R, Zhou H, Wagner AK, and Leak RK (2011) An examination of striatal c-Fos activation following controlled cortical impact in rats. National Neurotrauma Symposium. Hollywood, FL
  73. Titler AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK (2011) Pretreatment with MG132 protects primary astrocytes against subsequent toxic exposures. 3rd Annual American Association for Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA
  74. Posimo JM, Titler AM, and Leak RK (2011) Topographical differences in sensitivity to proteasome inhibition in mammalian cerebral cortex. 3rd Annual American Association for Pharmaceutical Scientists Pittsburgh Chapter Student Research Symposium. Pittsburgh, PA
  75. Leak RK (2011) Adaptation to cellular stress in models of Parkinson's disease. Slippery Rock Department of Biology Seminar Series. Pittsburgh, PA
  76. Leak RK (2011) Adaptation to cellular stress in models of Parkinson's disease. Duquesne Department of Biology Seminar Series. Pittsburgh, PA
  77. Parra LA, Baust TB, Leak RK, Smith AD, Zigmond MJ, and Torres GE (2010) A novel role for the molecular chaperone Hsc70 in the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and subcellular distribution. Society for Neuroscience. 741.3. San Diego, CA
  78. Lopresti BJ, Dettmer AM, Leak RK, Rockcastle NJ, Zigmond MJ, Mathis C, Zhang Z, and Cameron JL. (2010) Regular exercise training protects against MPTP-damage to nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in nonhuman primates. The Eighth International Symposium on Functional Neuroreceptor Mapping of the Living Brain - NRM 2010. Glasgow, Scotland
  79. Mitchell AC, Leak RK, Garbett K, Greenough WT, Zigmond MJ, Cameron JL, and Mirnics K (2010) The effects of exercise on the brain transcriptome. Society for Neuroscience. 460.1. San Diego, CA
  80. Dettmer AM, Lopresti BJ, Leak RK, Rockcastle N, Zigmond MJ, Mathis CA, Zhang A, and Cameron JL (2010) Physical activity protects the striatum against MPTP damage in nonhuman primates. Society for Neuroscience. 460.11. San Diego, CA
  81. Posimo JM, Titler AM, Cavanaugh JE, and Leak RK (2010) Age-related increases in ceruloplasmin in the mouse mesencephalon. Metals and Ions in Biology conference at Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA. **Won Best Poster award
  82. Titler AM, Posimo JM, and Leak RK (2010) Oxidative stress elicits refractory response to subsequent toxin exposure. Metals and Ions in Biology conference at Duquesne University. Pittsburgh, PA
  83. Cameron JL, Rockcastle N, Zigmond MJ, Leak RK, Smith AD, Lopresti BJ, Mathis CA, Mirnics K, Williams NI, and Zhang Z (2009) Exercise protects the striatum against MPTP damage in nonhuman primates. Society for Neuroscience. 430.7. Chicago, IL **Abstract chosen for a press conference
  84. Parra LA, Baust TB, Quiroz M, Leak RK, and Torres GE (2009) A novel interaction between the molecular chaperone Hsc70 and tyrosine hydroxylase. Society for Neuroscience. 131.9. Chicago, IL
  85. Leak RK (2008) Adaptation to chronic MG132 reduces oxidative toxicity via CuZnSOD. Pittsburgh Area Ubiquitin-Proteasome Meeting. Pittsburgh, PA
  86. Leak RK, Zhang Z, Castro SL, Lopresti BJ, Mathis CA, Zigmond MJ, and Cameron JL (2008) Impact of exercise in a non-human primate model of Parkinson's disease. Seventh International Symposium on Functional Neuroreceptor Mapping of Living Brain. Neuroreceptor Mapping '08. Pittsburgh, PA
  87. Leak RK, Jaumotte JD, and Zigmond MJ (2008) Responses to low and high cellular stress in neuronal cortical cultures. Society for Neuroscience. 343.21. Washington, DC
  88. Lopresti BJ, Zhang Z, Zigmond MJ, Leak RK, Mathis CA, and JL Cameron (2008) Increased survival of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons following a toxic MPTP insult in the exercising primate: A [11C]DTBZ PET study. Seventh International Symposium on Functional Neuroreceptor Mapping of Living Brain. Pittsburgh, PA
  89. Leak RK, Wong MS, Zigmond MJ, and Liou KF (2007) Proteasome inhibition induces protection against oxidative stress in catecholaminergic cells. Society for Neuroscience. 382.7. San Diego, CA
  90. Mirnics K, Garbett K, Mitchell AC, Sullivan E, Leak RK, Zigmond MJ, and Cameron JL (2007) Spontaneous activity and neocortical gene expression in non-human primates. Society for Neuroscience. 589.9. San Diego, CA
  91. Leak RK, Zigmond MJ, and Liou KF (2007) Adaptation of catecholaminergic cells to MG-132 and reduced vulnerability to oxidative stress. 11th Annual National Conference of Morris K. Udall Centers for Excellence in Parkinson's Research. Pittsburgh, PA
  92. Lindgren NL, Leak RK, Smith AD, and Zigmond MJ (2006) Role of MAP kinases in the neuroprotective effects of GDNF in vivo. Society for Neuroscience. 756.7. Atlanta, GA
  93. Liou KF, Leak RK, Li L, Kotevski L, and Zigmond MJ (2006) Characterization of the functional differences between LRRK2 wild-type and Y1699C mutant genes. Society for Neuroscience. 173.9. Atlanta, GA

cover JNC

Front Cover: Primary olfactory bulb cultures from postnatal rats were immunostained on day-in-vitro 7 for the neuronal
marker microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2, green) and the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, red).
Nuclei were labeled blue with Hoechst.

Read the full article ‘Heat shock protein responses to aging and proteotoxicity in the olfactory bulb' by T. S. Crum,
A. M. Gleixner, J. M. Posimo, D. M. Mason, M. T. Broeren, S. D. Heinemann, P. Wipf, J. L. Brodsky and R. K. Leak
(J. Neurochem. 2015, vol. 133 (6), pp. 780-794) on doi: 10.1111/jnc.13041