Course descriptions

The following are course descriptions of the requirements and electives for a major in International Relations. Many of these courses are cross-listed with the departments of Political Science, History, and Modern Languages and Literatures.

For a full list of courses, please review the university's course catalog.

IR 101 - Catholic Thought, the State and Security in the Modern World - 3 credits
The increasing tensions of the present security environment can have a strangling effect on the spirit and ethos of moral reason, and faith founded social institutions. The State needs to be secure and have its people secure. Doing so, however, may involve hard choices to do things it would not do ordinarily. How can a principled and faith founded people respond to these exigencies? This course introduces the student to the rich tradition of Roman Catholic thinking on the subject of war, peace, the State and the dignity of the individual. It will then open a conversation with some of the other approaches to contemporary problems, as well as assess responses to pressing security issues confronting the world.  Cross-listed with POSC 101, Theme Area: Faith & Reason.

IR 102 - Careers in International Relations - 3 credits
This course is intended to introduce the new IR major to fundamental logistics of a career in International Relations generally and the IR program at Duquesne University specifically. It will cover professional and academic elements, review internship processes and outline study abroad options. Further it will provide a stepping stone to the IR advisement process, career options with the major and help students focus on setting and achieving career goals after graduation. 

IR 103 - Elementary Arabic I for International Relations - 3 credits
This is an introduction to the Arabic language. Emphasis will be given to appropriate lexicon for students of IR.

IR 104 - Elementary Arabic II for International Relations - 3 credits
A continuation of IR 103 with additional emphasis to the four language skills and appropriate lexicon for students of IR.

IR 109 - Arabic I Practicum - 1 credit
The one-hour Arabic Practicum is designed to be taken on a Pass/Fail basis as the ideal accompaniment to IR 103, Elementary Arabic I in IR, or IR 211, Intermediate Arabic I in IR, which are three-credit, twice a week Arabic courses for ab initio students. The Arabic practicum, while not required of incoming Arabic students, is strongly recommended given that it will provide students with a built-in hour for remediation in the Arabic language once a week throughout the term. Students taking the Arabic Practicum, therefore, will have more opportunity for mastering the challenging fundamentals of this non-western language to include (though not limited to) pronunciation technique, grammar rules, reading, and writing the language.

IR 110 - Current Problems in International Politics - 3 credits
A survey of issues that states currently face in world politics.
Cross-listed with POSC 110, Theme Area: Global Diversity & Social Justice.

IR 111 - Arabic II Practicum
The one-hour Arabic Practicum is designed to be taken on a Pass/Fail basis as the ideal accompaniment to IR 104, Elementary Arabic II in IR, or IR 212, Intermediate Arabic II in IR, which are three-credit, twice a week Arabic courses for ab initio students. The Arabic practicum, while not required of incoming Arabic students, is strongly recommended given that it will provide students with a built-in hour for remediation in the Arabic language once a week throughout the term. Students taking the Arabic Practicum, therefore, will have more opportunity for mastering the challenging fundamentals of this non-western language to include (though not limited to) pronunciation technique, grammar rules, reading, and writing the language.

IR 120 - International Political Economy - 3 credits
An introduction to how government decisions about trade, investment, debt and market developments impact people domestically and worldwide. Special attention is given to the problems experienced by poorer countries and responsibilities of developed nations. No background in the subject matter is required.  Cross-listed with POSC 120

IR 125 - The Spiritans and the Catholic Faith in a Global Environment - 3 credits
This course seeks to survey the history, charism, and spirituality of the Spiritans and the wider presence of the Catholic Faith within the context of their global presence. Catholic Social Teaching and the ministry of the Spiritans will be considered in the face of changing global challenges.

IR 140 - Military Transition Experience - 3 credits
This course seeks to optimize the transition of military personnel or veterans from their existing professional lives to the environment of academic life generally, and Duquesne University life, specifically. Students will be briefed on several dozen topic area, comprehensively covering university structures and procedures, student life issues, as well as personal, physical, emotional, and financial health. The class will pay especial attention to the differences in the two work environments, and how differing expectations of personal responsibility, time discipline, study and learning strategies, and professional development may be managed.

IR 200 - Writing and Research in International Relations - 3 credits
Students will learn to do research and write papers related to IR issues. This course is intended to act as a gateway for career specific writing skills. Fundamental instruments necessary for the field are the main focus, including policy memos, event and report summaries, and research writing.

IR 201 - Human Security in Sub-Saharan Africa - 3 credits
Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, the course examines human security issues including religious and ethnic conflict within states; genocide and mass slaughter; terrorism; food security; migration and human trafficking; development and aid; and democratization. Among countries considered in the course are some of Africa's largest and most important, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia.  Cross-listed with POSC 201

IR 202 - Politics of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and South Asia - 3 credits
Examines the politics, society, and culture of key countries in South Asia. Highlights problems of democracy, terrorism, poverty, human rights, and development. Particular attention to the role of religion, caste, ethnicity, and gender. Cross-listed with POSC 205

IR 206 - Japanese Culture - 3 credits
This course introduces students to interdisciplinary approaches to the holistic study of Japanese culture; its tradition and the contemporary society. It draws on case studies of current issues that require students to think analytically and critically about how we approach, interpret, and respond to different cultures. The class will also experience the taste of culture through hands-on crafts and the culinary arts. The course is designed to help students broaden their knowledge of Japan and prepare them for global competition.
Cross-listed with MLJA 206

IR 207 - Arab Culture - 3 credits
This course will engage students in the study of a variety of literary, linguistic, geographical, historical, social, religious, cultural and artistic aspects of the modern Arab world. Many course components are specifically intended to heighten students' sensitivity to racial bias and sharpen awareness of multicultural issues. The course intends to increase tolerance and understanding by providing students with a realistic view of the cultural contours of the modern Arab world and the richness of the Arab cultural heritage. Cross-listed with MLAR 206

IR 208 - Politics of Great Powers - 3 credits
An introduction to government, politics, culture and economic policy in Europe and Japan.  Cross-listed with POSC 208

IR 209 - Politics of Emerging Powers - 3 credits.
An introduction to government, politics, culture, and economic policy in the developing world. Cross-listed with POSC 209

IR 210 - Introduction to International Security Studies - 3 credits
This course seeks to establish to basic foundations of the use of force by States, legal and moral restrictions on its application and the fundamental foundations of strategic policy. It will examine how states have responded to their security challenges over the centuries as technology has transformed the strategic landscape by examining a series of State security case studies.  Cross-listed with POSC 210

IR 211 - Intermediate Arabic I for International Relations - 3 credits
Intermediate Arabic I for International Relations will serve to extend knowledge and experience gained for beginning students in First and Second Semester of Arabic instruction, Arabic for IR 103 and 104 pushing students in their language production to increasingly complex forms of expression, retention, and comprehension in all phases of the Arabic language. Students will shoulder considerable work in the language at home and away from class meetings. Work completed at home will then be applied and put to consistent use via in-class conversation, quizzing, reported speech, written examination, and ultimately, an extended end-of-semester presentation.

IR 212 - Intermediate Arabic II for International Relations - 3 credits
International Relations 212 (Arabic Conversation in International Relations IV) will serve as the continuation of the educational program Arabic in Conversation in International Relations, extending knowledge and experience gained for beginning students in first three semesters of Arabic in International Relations. Entrance into this course will require the successful completion of third semester Arabic for IR and, as such, will begin with an assumed student mastery of certain concepts in written and spoken Arabic covered in detail in previous semesters. IR 212 will then extend this knowledge, pushing students in their language production to increasingly complex forms of expression with increasingly developed scenarios in conversation and in-class role plays. By the end of IR 212, students will be approaching basic conversational fluency in Arabic to include fluid comprehension of both the written and spoken word.

IR 216 - Foundations of International Relations Theory - 3 credits
The goal of this course is to develop understanding of how contemporary international relations theory rests upon a long-standing historical conversation about the conditions for a just international order. Specific objectives include comprehending a) classical realism, idealism, imperialism and cosmopolitanism b) Christian just war theory and cosmopolitanism c) early modern realism, the rise of the state and international law d) modern liberal nationalism and internationalism e) modern cosmopolitanism and imperialism.
Cross-listed with POSC 216

IR 220 - The Arabs - 3 credits
This course is an introductory study of the Arabs, and examines how the Arabs developed from a geographically bound, largely nomadic, Semitic people to a global cultural force whose primary vehicles were religion and the Arabic language. Students taking this course will study the geography of the Arab world and the culture of the Arabs prior to the advent of Islam. The introduction of Islam on the Arabian Peninsula will then be examined, with an eye to understanding how the prophetic mission of the Islamic prophet Muhammad was influenced by, and impressed upon, Arab culture. The expansion of Islam via the early Arab conquests will help students gain a better understanding as to why several Muslim-majority countries self-identify as Arab despite a majority of their populations being overwhelmingly ethnically non-Arab, but also the ways in which the projection of early Arab cultural precepts via the religification of 7th century Arab culture impacted on the sociopolitical, economic, and religious development of the Muslim world up until, and into, the early 20th century.

IR 222 - Intelligence and Foreign Policy - 3 credits
The Central Intelligence Agency has at times been in step with American policy and at other times (in Cuba in the 1960's and in Afghanistan, 2001) seemed to drive it. The course will look at the CIA through the eyes of the individuals chosen to lead it, from Allen Dulles to Stansfield Turner and, in an age of transnational threats, from George Tenant to the tenure of John Brennan. The course will also explore the relationship between the various CIA Directors and the presidents they served.  Cross-listed with POSC 222

IR 240 - Science Fiction and IR - 3 credits
The speculative and experimental nature of Science Fiction has long served as a laboratory for political and governmental theories. In this course students will read multiple texts while they explore driving themes of the international social and political order, as imagined through the lens of transformational technology, including the effects of time, government, security, ultimate values, gender identity, geospatial dynamics, artificial intelligence, political rights, and culture formation.

IR 245 - International Relations - 3 credits
A study of politics between states including sovereignty, balance of power, war, and economics.  Cross-listed with POSC 245

IR 254 - American Foreign Policy - 3 credits
A study of American foreign policy since World War II.  Cross-listed with POSC 255

IR 272 - Governance and National Security in the Arab World - 3 credits
This course is an introduction to governance and security in the contemporary Middle East. Students will be instructed in key developments in the modern history of countries in the region, built on two core building blocks that intersect as the course progresses. The first is a comparative study of the historical development of select Middle Eastern regimes with an eye to appreciating similarities and differences in the nations' political and socio-economic trajectories. The second block studies predominant security challenges in the Middle East, examining their relation to regional politics, as well as their greater impact on global security. Topics studied include, independence/post-independence conflicts and state formation, religious reform efforts and reasons for the predominance of political Islam, the challenge of 21st century media and technologies to authoritarian rule in light of the recent Arab Spring protests, as well as understanding the strategic importance of the region to U.S. interests and Western advanced conceptions of world order.

IR 290 - The Role of Force in the Modern World - 3 credits
This course seeks to understand how power has been projected in the contemporary era. It looks closely at the advent of weapons of mass destruction, Fourth Generation Warfare, terrorism, hybrid warfare and the uses of socio-economic instruments to project power and achieve foreign policy aims. Theoretical bases for the role of force and multiple case studies will be employed.

IR 295 - War and Peace in the Nuclear Age - 3 credits
An examination of the interaction between politics and the use of force in the nuclear age.  Cross-listed with POSC 295

IR 296 - Intelligence Operations - 3 credits
This course investigates the nature and function of Intelligence for the state. It specifically considers the Intelligence Cycle, and the various functions of intelligence in state power. How information is gathered, analyzed, and used is reviewed, as well as major ethical limits on these processes.

IR 300 - Intelligence, Covert Action, and Counter-Insurgency - 3 credits
Covert action operations and counter-intelligence have been employed in counter-insurgency from the 1600's to the present global struggle against terrorism. The same forms of low intensity conflict are being fought in Afghanistan and the Middle East. This course will survey counter-insurgency doctrine and analyze the value and problems intelligence operations present in these types of conflicts.

IR 301 - Intelligence Ethics - 3 credits
The Intelligence Ethics course is designed to engage participants on the ethical dilemmas posed by the world of espionage, including use of human assets, the ethics of the acquisition of intelligence, targeted killings, propaganda, as well as other covert action actions. Ethics and intelligence case studies in the contemporary era will consider various modalities performed by the Central Intelligence Agency in the open-ended War on Terror, including enhanced interrogation techniques (2001-2009), the incarceration of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and the death of Osama bin Laden under CIA direction in 2011.

IR 303 - Politics of Immigration - 3 credits
This course explores the challenges of immigrant incorporation in an increasingly transnational world. Through comparative case studies drawn from the European and American contexts, as well as community engaged learning activities with Pittsburgh partner institutions, students gain both a theoretical and practical exposure to the difficulties that both immigrant groups and policymakers face regarding immigrant incorporation.  Cross-listed with POSC 303

IR 311 - European Security and Mass Migration - 3 credits
Students taking this course will learn about contemporary migration patterns into the European Union (EU), and the various institutional and legal mechanisms that were in place prior to the 2015 refugee crisis to manage all forms of migration into the EU. The politics of the refugee crisis will then be examined, with an eye to appreciating the various challenges the crisis presented member states, with a focus on security-related issues. Responses and measures to the crisis at the level of individual states and the Union will be covered, with students gaining a deeper appreciation of the benefits, shortcomings, outright failings and consequences of collectively managing crises at the EU-level, as well as potential future developments.

IR 315 - Women in Global Conflict - 3 credits
The study of conflict and conflict resolution has historically tended to underplay female agency and the contribution of women in war and peacetime, respectively. A closer look at contemporary global conflicts suggests that the role of women as victims, perpetrators, and peacemakers is much more significant and challenges this androcentrism. By using multiple case studies this course introduces students to the predominant gendered narratives and paradigms of peace and conflict studies, then goes on to highlight the different roles that women have played in both perpetuating, challenging, and redefining them.

IR 326 - German Foreign Policy - 3 credits
This course surveys the transformation of German political aspirations from the ascendancy of Kaiser Wilhelm II to the disintegration of Imperial Germany following defeat in the First World War in 1918. The rise of Adolf Hitler in the Weimar Republic resulted in the ascendancy of the Nazi movement in 1933 and its complete collapse in 1945. The course will trace the growth of Germany as the economic powerhouse of Europe in the post-war age, and the pivotal roles of chancellors Konrad Adenauer, Willi Brandt, Helmut Kohl and Angela Merkel in the development - and the problems - of the European Union.  Cross-listed with POSC 315

IR 345(W) - Security Ethics - 3 credits
The course's principal purposes are to explore the possibilities, limits, and obligations of ethical action in international relations. The course applies the insights of different theories of ethics to a number of issues, including various wars, terrorism, and humanitarian intervention. Cross-listed with POSC 345(W)

IR 349 - United Nations I - 1 credit/ IR 350 - United Nation II - 1 credit
IR 353 - United Nations III - 2 credits/ IR 354 - United Nations IV - 2 credits
Examines the processes and policies of the United Nations through classroom lecture and experiential (lab) activities. A strong focus will be placed on reinforcing professional skills such as research, negotiation, and public speaking. The required lab portion of this course will consist of student participation in all parts of local and/or national Model United Nations conferences, amounting to at least 12 hours of this lab/activity outside the classroom. Permission of instructor required. Cross-listed with POSC 349, POSC 350, POSC 353, and POSC 354

IR 351 - US Foreign Relations to WWI - 3 credits
An examination of the history of American foreign relations from the American Revolution to WWI. This is a study of the nation's exercise of sovereignty in foreign affairs, its rise to world power, and the internal and external conflicts that resulted.  Cross-listed with HIST 351

IR 352 - US Foreign Relations Since 1917 - 3 credits
The United States emerged as a major player on the world stage during and after World War I. This course will discuss the role that the country has played in international relations during the course of the 20th century and will also examine the domestic implications of the United States' rise to world dominance.  Cross-listed with HIST 352

IR 360 - Crisis Management in Complex Emergencies - 3 credits
This course considers crisis management in theory and practice, drawing from the periods since World War II. Theories of crisis prevention, escalation, management, de-escalation, termination, and post-crisis management will be covered. In addition, alternative decision-making theories, structures, and processes, the nature of crisis bargaining and negotiation and the role of third parties will be addressed. Special attention will be paid to the role of military force in post-Cold War crisis scenarios. The course will include case studies and a simulation designed to provide context to the study of crisis management.  Cross-listed with POSC 360

IR 362 - Federal Criminal Law Enforcement - 3 credits
This class will introduce students to much of the same legal training received by federal agents and is designed to complement coursework for students studying or interested in international relations, security studies, criminal justice, and law. In addition to covering important constitutional issues and case law, the class will focus on agent authority, federal criminal statutes and rules of criminal procedure, discussions of current events, and exercises to include interviewing, review of financial records, law enforcement writing, and moving a criminal investigation from initiation to conviction in the federal court system.

IR 391 - Advanced International Political Economy - 3 credits
This course surveys the basic positions in IPE as well as hegemonic stability theories, more complex trade case studies, foreign economic policies and international economic organizational behaviors - such as Basel III, Sovereign Wealth Funds or GATT/WTO rounds - which influence global trade behavior. The interplay between governmental interests and global finance and trade will be emphasized.

IR 393 - Political and Economic Geography - 3 credits
This course is intent upon providing an in-depth understanding of world geography and its corresponding relationship to the rise and decline, existence and maintenance of nation-states. Of necessity, students will be engaged in political and economic realities that may contribute to the future of the world, in war or in peace.

IR 394 - Historical Geography - 3 credits
A survey of the physical world which is the basis for a human civilization, past present, and future. What are the possibilities and limitations of different places for human development? How successful or unsuccessful were human settlements? Emphasis also on geography as an intellectual discipline and cultural phenomenon.
Cross-listed with HIST 394

IR 404 - Introduction to Information Security - 3 credits
This course will cover fundamentals of the Internet, a survey of foundational cyber-security concepts, and managerial and policy topics. The course is geared to help students have sufficient technical awareness and managerial competence that will enable them to pursue advanced study in cyber security. There is no prerequisite for this course but successful students will have fundamental knowledge of information and computer systems as well as a general awareness of security issues in these systems.

IR 405 - Transnational Organized Crime - 3credits
This course explores the dramatic rise of transnational organized crime, its threat to domestic and international security, and strategies to combat it. It surveys established and emerging international organized crime groups who commit diverse criminal activities - trafficking, smuggling, kidnapping, extortion, theft, etc. Case studies will be used to analyze how criminal groups weaken states, encourage corruption, and undermine the rule of law; international efforts and legal frameworks to combat transnational organized crime; real-world challenges in working cases; and the necessity of effective international cooperation.

IR 406 - Homeland Security
Preserving the physical well being of the nation from natural calamity or weather events is the primary focus of this course. This course aims to enhance the students' ability to see through to the crux of contemporary policy issues efficiently, quickly, and logically. The course explores techniques of policy analysis in depth, as well as the practical constraints imposed by the policy-making environment in several policy areas, in order to hone those critical analytic skills.  Cross-listed with POSC 405

IR 407 - Terrorism - 3 credits
The phenomenon of transnational violence perpetrated by non state actors against civilians has become the single most pressing security issue in the modern era. This sort of violence - terrorism - is studied here in all its facets: motivations, organization, funding, tactics and goals. Furthermore, kinetic as well as soft-power counter-terror strategies are also reviewed from the policy, legal and moral perspectives, among others.  Cross-listed with POSC 407

IR 408 - Democracy, Security, and World Politics - 3 credits
Examines power, conflict and democratization primarily in countries outside the U.S.  Cross-listed with POSC 408

IR 409W - Ethnic Conflict: Politics and Policy - 3 credits
Ethnic conflict threatens political stability in countries around the world. From Iraq to Bolivia, from Spain to Indonesia, conflicts have erupted over a wide variety of "ethnic" issues in recent years. Yet, despite its ubiquity, ethnic politics remains poorly understood: Why do people identify with ethnic groups? Why does ethnic identity sometimes lead to private ritual, sometimes to peaceful mobilization through mass movements or political parties, and sometimes to violent conflict, pogroms, and genocide? Most pressingly, are there solutions to ethnic conflict, particularly in deeply-divided, violence-ridden countries?  Cross-listed with POSC 419W

IR 413(W) - Human Rights and Human Security: Politics, Policy and Law - 3 credits
Explores the international human rights regime including philosophical sources, legal instruments, governmental and non-state actors, and impacts on the international system. Cross-listed with POSC 413(W)

IR 415 - Twenty-First Century Terrorism - 3 credits
This course is case study intensive and examines the development of terrorism in the twenty-first century. It includes groups that were active throughout the twentieth century that have either continued into the twenty-first century and further evolved (e.g. al-Qaeda and its various post-9/11 manifestations), or else those that were deemed defunct only to appear to be making a comeback (e.g. splinter groups of the Irish Republican Army or IRA). The course analyzes changing trends, strategies and tactics, and ideological positions of different factions within and across terrorist groups in response to developments in domestic and global politics. Graduates from this course will be able to more confidently speak about how the face of terrorism has changed in the twenty-first century, as well as which elements of this form of political violence appear to remain timeless and fixed.

IR 421 - Leadership - 3 credits
The vital element in the chemistry of national policy and strategic direction has consistently been the presence of effective, charismatic leadership. Where do these leaders come from and how do they operate? This course looks at the fundamentals of effective leadership at the national and international levels, and seeks to understand the algorithm of successful leadership in those venues.

IR 422W - American Defense Policy - 3 credits
This course studies the institutions, policies, and decision making of the American defense establishment. Lecture. University Core Writing Intens.  Cross-listed with POSC 422W

IR 423W - Comparative Intelligence Agencies - 3 credits
An examination of the development, structure and usage of intelligence agencies with particular emphasis on how such functions impact upon national policy makers and the policy making process. The primary focus of the course centers on a study of the CIA, British M16 and Russian KGB/FSB.  Cross-listed with POSC 429W

IR 432 - Network Situational Awareness - 3 credits
The 21st century created an unprecedented dependence on the Internet that is ever changing and affects all aspects of business and communications. This change brings up challenging problems which business decisions analysts face both at the micro and macro-level. Students will use a variety of software to identify and analyze network communications to solve challenge problems. There will be a heavy focus on the threats facing organizations along with general network profiling techniques. Although there is no prerequisite, students should have a firm grasp on RFC-compliant communications since this class will only lightly cover certain topics.

IR 435 - Political Islam - 3 credits
This course studies the ideological foundations of contemporary political Islam through tracing its evolution via the writings and treatises of its most influential thinkers. Importantly, it studies political Islam in its various manifestations not only in Muslim majority contexts, but also in the West. Students will become familiar with the activism of pioneer Islamist movements like the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, and upon completing the course, will be able to identify the primary ideological differences between violent and non-violent manifestations of political Islam, its impact on social relations across geographical contexts, its resilience and success among Muslim publics, as well as obstacles to its democratization.

IR 437- Intelligence Research - 3 credits
This seminar topic will focus on the tenure of Stansfield Turner as Director of Central Intelligence, 1977-1981. Turner's directorship was his first position in the U.S. Intelligence Community; he had previously served as an Admiral in the Navy. The course will use Turner's book Secrecy and Democracy as a guide and will explore the dilemmas of reforming an intelligence institution as well as contrast Turner's effort with the (considerably later) 2004 Intelligence Reform Act.

IR 462 - Applied Threat Systems - 3 credits
This course seeks to broaden the perception of how organizations perceive digital vulnerabilities, exploitation, malware, network communications, memory forensics, and malicious actors in general. Moreover, work will focus on advanced detection threats, as well as integrated approaches for solutions across the digital attack surface.

IR 464W - Cybersecurity Studies Capstone Project - 3 credits
The purpose of the Capstone Project is for the students to apply theoretical knowledge acquired during the Cybersecurity program to a project involving actual data in a realistic setting. During the project, students engage in the entire process of solving a real-world cybersecurity issue, from collecting and processing actual data to applying suitable and appropriate analytic methods to the problem. Both the problem statements for the project assignments and the datasets should originate from real-world domains similar to those that students might typically encounter within industry, government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), or academic research.
Depending on the project's complexity, students will work individually or in small teams on a problem statement, typically specified either by the student or by a faculty, industry, or governmental sponsor. The sponsor will usually be responsible for supplying the relevant data set. Research groups (both from within, as well as external to Duquesne) may propose projects. Pending approval by the instructor, students are free to design their own problem statement and construct their own data set. As the project and problem statements warrant, students may be permitted to organize into teams of two to three participants. Teams larger than three will be considered for approval on a case-by-case basis. Each project team will be supervised by the instructor (in some cases with a relevant faculty advisor and/or industry or government sponsor). The final problem statements and the composition of the teams will be approved by the instructor.

IR 470 - Cybersecurity Leadership and Strategy - 3 credits
This course seeks to develop a comprehensive policy approach to cyber issues which administrators can expect to address. Topics will include forming the elements of an information security program and measurements of effectiveness, information security policy, risk-based cybersecurity business decision making, legal and regulatory frameworks (PCI, HIPAA, SOX, GLBA, FISMA, EU Data Privacy), zero hour and incident response, general policy standards, and ethical issues involving cyber administration, among other topics.

IR 498 - Global Security Problems - 3 credits
This course is a deep dive on pressing international security problems, as well as frozen conflicts and developing security issues. It is intended as a capstone to the ISS major and will feature a written research project.

IR 499 - Advanced International Relations Theory
The central substantive aim of the course is to develop a deep and nuanced understanding of how different theories explain international politics and which ones are most persuasive under what conditions. Theories are important because they affect both how we intepret our environment and how we respond to it. Theories, in short, drive action. Theories representing all of the major approaches to the study of world politics (material, institutional, and ideational) and levels of analysis (international, domestic, and individual) will be examined. A central objective of the class is for students to develop their critical reading abilities, i.e., what are the authors read in the class arguing? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each piece? What are the authors' (often hidden) assumptions? Correctly answering these questions is important not only in the context of this class, but in terms of how you - curent citizens and future leaders - see the world.  Cross-listed with POSC 497

IR 491- Internship - 1-3 crs. With special permission.

IR 493W - Directed Readings - 1-3 crs. With special permission.

IR 496 - Special Topics - 3 crs. With special permission.