Electives & Concentrations

Electives & Concentrations

Professional Elective Courses

Course Number Course Title Credits
GPSC 513 Principles of Drug Action, Design and Delivery 3
GPSC 589W Research Methods Pharmacy Administration 3
GPSC 673 Advanced Pharmacology 3
PHBA 400 Mindfulness for Clinicians 1
PHBA 423 Perspectives in Global Health 3
PHBA 426 Basics in Investments and Personal Finance 1
PHBA 427 Applications in Investments and Personal Finance 1
PHBA 428 International Pharmacy Services 2
PHBA 431 Entrepreneurship in Pharmacy 3
PHBA 433 Special Topics in Entrepreneurship 3
PHBM 468 Independent Study and Research 1-4
PHEX 489 Optional Experiential Education 4
PHIN 452 Advanced Concepts in Oncology 3
PHPR 427 Etiology Assessment & Treatment of Pain for Health Care Professionals 3
PHPR 465 SLTP in Senior Care Pharmacy 3
PHPR 468 Ambulatory Care Models - Development, Implementation and Sustainability 3
PHPR 477 General Pediatrics Neonatal Pharmacy Therapy 3
PHPR 478 Seminar in Current Practice Guidelines in Ambulatory Care 2
PHPR 479 Clinical Preparation for Community Pharmacy Practice 2
PHPR 481 Dermatological Therapeutics and Topical Delivery Systems 3
PHPR 488 Technology Pharmacy Practitioner 2
PHPR 489 Branding of Clinical Community Practice 3
PHPR 493 Advanced Acute Care Clinical Skills 3
PHPR 494 Advanced Acute Care Clinical Skills II 3
PHPR 496 Urgent Topics in Palliative and End-of-Life Care 1

*Courses in Bold are only available to students in the concentration
†Offerings of electives can change based on registration

Elective Concentrations

Elective concentrations are designed to give student pharmacists an opportunity to develop in areas of concentration. These faculty-approved concentrations require a minimum of 6 contact hours of coursework and other required activities. A certificate of completion is presented to students at graduation.


Acute Care Concentration

14 Credits Required

The Acute Care Concentration provides student pharmacists with education and training directed toward careers in Institutional Pharmacy Practice and preparation for ASHP Residencies. In didactic courses students study advanced clinical and hospital practice topics. In experiential rotations students are required to complete additional experiential rotations in Advanced Clinical Practice and are encouraged to develop a research project in conjunction with a practitioner, culminating in a poster presentation at a local or national meeting.

Course Number Course Title Credits
PHPR 493 Advanced Acute Care Clinical Skills I 3
PHPR 494 Advanced Acute Care Clinical Skills II 3
Two Elective Advanced Rotations in Acute Care/Research 8

Entrepreneurial Pharmacy Concentration

6 Credits Required

This concentration is designed to allow the student to begin to understand how they can take their pharmacy knowledge and apply it to developing their own unique business which can be anything from owning their own traditional independent pharmacy or starting a new clinical pharmacy business service that has never existed before in the pharmacy industry. These courses will also allow the student to self-reflect in order to understand themselves, how best to work with others and what are their strengths and weaknesses in becoming an entrepreneur.

Course Number Course Title Credits
PHBA 431 Entrepreneurship in Pharmacy 3
PHBA 433 Special Topics in Entrepreneurship 3

Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Concentration

15 Credits Required

The geriatric concentration provides student pharmacists with additional education and training in the provision of pharmaceutical care to geriatric patients and encourages students to pursue careers in long-term care pharmacy, residencies in geriatrics and other areas within geriatric practice. The concentration culminates with a comprehensive exam similar in structure and content to the Geriatric Certification Exam.

Course Number Course Title Credits
PHBM 443 Biomedical Sciences and Therapeutics: Therapeutics in Special Populations 4
PHPR 465 Special Topics in Senior Care Pharmacy 3
Two Elective Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) in Geriatrics 8

Health Services & Outcomes Research Concentration

9 Credits Required

The research concentration provides student pharmacists an opportunity train students in introductory health services and outcomes research (HSOR) that improves clinical decision making for patients, healthcare professionals, industry, and government and to conduct research on the clinical, economic, and humanistic impacts of medication and medication-related healthcare services.

Course Number Course Title Credits
GPSC 589 Research Methods in Health Services and Outcomes Research 3
GPSC 592 Evidence Synthesis in Healthcare 3
GPSC 520 Qualitative Methods in Healthcare Research 3

Community Practice Concentration

11 Credits Required

Community pharmacists are described as the most accessible, and one of the most trusted, healthcare professionals. Due to the vast number of prescriptions dispensed in community pharmacy, and the plethora of chain and independent pharmacies nationwide, community pharmacy employs the highest number of working pharmacists in the United States. Approximately over 70% of Duquesne pharmacy graduates each year enter into this rewarding field. As the number of pharmacy schools across the country increase, thus increasing the supply of licensed pharmacists, it is essential for job placement and security that pharmacists are well-versed in the provision of additional pharmacy services that enhance patient care outcomes, promote wellness, enhance accessibility to and affordability of medications. While this issue is addressed in the core curriculum of Collaborative Practice Agreements, we feel it is essential that our student pharmacists have the opportunity to engage in more individualized, advanced practices of a clinical community pharmacist and to have the certificate of a concentration such as this to increase their marketability to future employers. The concentration in advanced community practice enhances the new curriculum and is not duplicative.

Course Number Course Title Credits
PHPR 479 Clinical Preparation for Community Pharmacy Practice 2
PHPR 478 Seminar in Current Practice Guidelines in Ambulatory Care 2
PHPR 489 Branding Community Practice 3
APPE Rotation Requirement in Select Settings 4

Ambulatory Care Concentration

13 Credits Required

The Ambulatory Care Concentration provides students in the professional phase of the PharmD program with an opportunity to further develop and enhance skills related to practice in this growing area.

The Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties (BPS) defines Ambulatory Care Pharmacy as "the provision of integrated, accessible healthcare services by pharmacists who are accountable for addressing medication needs, developing sustained partnerships with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community". Ambulatory Care Pharmacy services are provided in diverse practice settings including outpatient clinics, community pharmacies, and telehealth. In 2011, BPS recognized Ambulatory Care Pharmacy as a distinct specialty within the profession by credentialing pharmacists through BCACP examination and certification. The BCACP credential is the second most common BPS credential held by pharmacists practicing in the U.S. In 2014, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists also recognized this evolution of practice by revising their mission and brand to include pharmacists practicing in ambulatory care settings.

Ambulatory care pharmacists typically train through the completion of a PGY1 Pharmacy Practice or Community Practice Residency and some go on to complete PGY2 Ambulatory Care residencies. The data suggest that this practice area is of growing interest among pharmacy graduates. In the last 7 years, the number of Ambulatory Care PGY2 programs have more than tripled (39 in 2010 to 132 in 2017) and there are now 190 PGY1 community-based pharmacy residency programs, with many of these programs partially or entirely based in an ambulatory care practice environment.

Course Number Course Title Credits
PHPR 479 Clinical Preparation for Community Pharmacy Practice 2
PHPR 478 Seminar in Current Practice Guidelines in Ambulatory Care 2
PHPR 468 Ambulatory Care Models - Development, Implementation and Sustainability 2
  Complete One (1) Elective from the Following List: 3
  PHPR 481 - APPE Rotation Requirement in Select Settings
  PHIN 452 - APPE Rotation Requirement in Select Settings
  PHPR 465 - APPE Rotation Requirement in Select Settings
  PHPR 477 - APPE Rotation Requirement in Select Settings
  Elective AAPE-RAM at an Approved Site 4