Information about Alcohol and Other Drugs
The Office of DU CARES
A student will have many new activites as part of their University experience. They will be presented with opportunties that may have not been available to them before. Newly found freedoms, new friends, new environments and new decisions are part of the University life. Most of these things will be very positive for students. Some, however, will present new challenges and will require solid decision making skills. Students are investing heavily in their future while at the University. They will invest much money, time, energy and effort while they are here; and that effort is what will posture them for their futures. Sometimes the difficulty is not in managing the work load, but rather managing the time spent out of class. 'Out of classroom' decisions are important as they can impact one's future as much as the 'in class' time. And since we live in a culture that adores alcohol--listen to the conversations around adult tables, at tailgates, at concerts, and in many other situations--today's college student is faced with many temptations and choices around the use of this drug. Indeed, for many this is not the first time they have had to deal with these decisions. The goal of DU CARES is to help students navigate these 4 years (or more-depending on major) making the most informed decisions they can based on solid information about the risks and use of alcohol and/or other drugs. We want our students to make good decisions in and out of the classroom; We want our students to be safe; We want our students to be successful; and we want our students to be of solid integrity and character. Character does not take a break at 10:00 on a Friday night for the weekend. Character and integrity are important all of the time.
We want our students to have fun and make new friends. We want them to socialize with many different people on campus. But we want them to do that in a safe way, and in ways that will not negatively impact their future.
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Chefs and Spectators alike "cooked up" a heated evening of fun and excitement!
DU CARES is here to:
teach students basic information about alcohol and other drugs. How alcohol effects different parts of the brain at various levels of intoxication and how that impacts, decision making, judgement and behavior.
refer students to appropriate services if alcohol/other drugs become a problem.
assist and support students in recovery.
present programs to groups, organizations, and academic classes.
provide suggestions on how to maintain a low-risk healthy lifestyle.
assist those being affected by the drinking or other drug use of another person.
Offer late night and weekend programs for students where alcohol is not present
DU CARES uses the SBIRT (Nationally recognized approach) model of intervention: That is, Screen, Brief Intervention, & Referral to Treatment if/as indicated. We use educational awareness and harm prevention programs as an integal part of this model.
ONLINE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM LINKS FOR STUDENTS:
: E Check UP To Go (E CHUG): http://interwork.sdsu.edu/echeckup/usa/alc/coll/D (alcohol link)
E Check Up To Go (E TOKE) http://interwork.sdsu.edu/echeckup/usa/mj/coll/DU/ (marijuana link)
Pennsylvania has a Legal Drinking Age of 21 years of age. If you are not 21 years of age, it is illegal to Purchase, consume, possess or transport various forms of alcohol. There are potential legal consequences at the State Level for failing to obey this law.
Legal Consequences in Pennsylvania for Alcohol Purchase, consumption, possesion, or transportation of liquor or malt or brewed beverages by a minor: SECTION 6308:
A PERSON COMMITS A SUMMARY OFFENSE IF S/HE, BEING LESS THAN 21 YEARS OF AGE, ATTEMPTS TO PURCHASE, PURCHASES, CONSUMES,POSSESSES OR KNOWINGLY AND INTENTIONALLY TRANSPORTS ANY LIQUOR OR MALT, OR BREWED BEVERAGES.
Chart of legal consequences for "underage": PA Liquor Control Board Alcohol VIolations:
|PENALTY||1ST OFFENSE||2ND OFFENSE||SUBSEQUENT OFFENSES|
|Fine||$0- $300.00||$0- $500.00||$0- $500.00|
|Jail||0- 90 Days||0-90 Days||0-90 Days|
|Driver's License Suspension||90 Days||1 Year||2 Years|
* Parental Notification for Minors
Legal Consequences for carrying a Fake ID in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania: SECTION 6210.3
A PERSON COMMITS A SUMMARY OFFENSE FOR A FIRST VIOLATION AND A MISDEMEANOR OF THE THIRD DEGREE FOR SUBSEQUENT VIOLATIONS IF S/HE, BEING UNDER 21 YEARS OF AGE, POSSESSES AN IDENTIFICATION CARD FALSELY IDENTIFYING THAT PERSON BY NAME, AGE, DATE OF BIRTH OR PHOTOGRAPH AS BEING 21 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, OR OBTAINS OR ATTEMPTS TO OBTAIN LIQUOR OR MALT OR BREWED BEVERAGES BY USING THE IDENTIFICATION CARD OF ANOTHER OR BY USING AN IDENTIFICATION CARD THAT HAS NOT BEEN LAWFULLY ISSUED TO OR IN THE NAME OF THAT PERSON WHO POSSESES THAT CARD.
Chart of legal consequences for: Carrying a False ID:
|PENALTY||1ST OFFENSE||2ND OFFENSE||SUBSEQUENT OFFENSES|
|Fine||$0- $300.00||$0 - $500.00||$0- $500.00|
|Jail||0-90 days||0-1 year||0-1 year|
|90 days||1 year||2 years|
*Parental notification for minors
In addition to the Legal risks at the State Level, there are also risks at the University level.
These risks can include behavioral choices from both on and off campus involvement with alcohol and/or other drugs: The charts below discuss some possible sanctions, and Policy information from the Duquesne University Code of Conduct Handbook (Article VIII and Article X):
TAP 32 Drug-free and Alcohol-free working and learning environment: https://www.duq.edu/work-at-du/human-resources-home/the-administrative-policies-(taps)/32-drug-free-and-alcohol-free-working-and-learning-environment. This policy applies to all University students, faculty and staff.
For additional information, please contact Dr. Daniel Gittins: (412) 396-5834, or email: email@example.com
Additional Health and Safety Information and Community Resources:
The Commonwealth Prevention Alliance Campaign to Stop Opiate and other Prescription Drug Abuse: http://PAStop.org
Pittsburgh Area AA Meetings: http://pghaa.org
Community Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Providers: General Contact Information:
Greenbriar Treatment Center: www.greenbriar.net 1-800-637-HOPE (4673)
Gateway Rehabilitation Center: www.gatewayrehab.org 1-800-472-1177
Pyramid Treatment Facility/Pyramid Healthcare: www.pyramidhealthcarepa.com 1-412-481-1922
Health and Safety Concerns:
Alcohol is a drug. And, since in our culture, there tends to be a minimization of the negative impacts of alcohol use (a belief that there is a low risk to use), it is widely used and is deeply engrained in our culture and society. First use often begins in high school or earlier, and continues throughout the life span.
Consumption of Alcohol can have significant health effects on the body-in both the short and long term.
Alcohol interferes with the brain's communication pathways, and will impact how the brain looks and works. These disruptions in communication can change a person's mood and behavior, and can impact judgement, coordination, problem solving and decision making.
In the short term, alcohol in regulated doses, will allow the user to feel an increased sense of euphoria, increased self-confidence (decreases inhibitions), increased sociability, decreased anxiety, impaired judgement, shortened attention span, and an impairment in fine muscle coordination. To a certain level, alcohol is used as a "social enhancer", but once a person gets to a certain level of BAC, it tends to become a "social blocker".
Higher doses in the short term can lead to:
• Sedation effects
• Impaired memory and comprehension
• Delayed reactions
• Ataxia; balance difficulty; unbalanced walk
• Blurred vision
• Impaired senses
• Impaired speech, staggering
• Lapses in and out of consciousness
• Respiratory depression
• Decreased heart rate
• Loss of control of bowels and/or bladder
• Impaired judgement and self control
• Increased aggression (in some people)
• Decreased ability to appropriately read social and environemental cues
Alcohol is a drug that is easily "mis-dosed" or "over-dosed". A Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC--percentage of alcohol in the bloodstream) level of a .10 means that .1% of your bloodstream is composed of alcohol. A range of .35% to .40% is a range in which fatal consequences can occur for approximately half of the population. Heavy Long Term drinkers can have numbers much higher than that. However, for most first time drinkers (or inexperienced drinkers), "pass out" (unconsciousness) can occur at approximately .15% of BAC. According to Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board BAC charts, a 120 pound female can get to a .15 in as little as 4 drinks.
1 "standard drink" is defined as:
- one 12 ounce beer at approximately 5% alcohol
- 1 1/2 ounces of most liquors at 40% alcohol
- 5-8 ounce glass of wine at 12% alcohol
In general, behavior changes start at low levels of alcohol consumption, but by a .15% there are significant behavioral changes in most users. Some common ‘personalities' that one might see from this group include the (self -perceived) "life of the party" drunk, the "emotional" drunk, the "sexualized" drunk and the "angry" drunk. Alcohol causes people to change in their behaviors.
An "over dose" (not the same as a fatal dose) is evident when a person starts to vomit the alcohol. This is an indication that the Body is in protection mode, detects an over dose of a toxic substance, and does its job to rid the body of the toxic substance. This becomes especially risky if the person is ‘passed out', as there is a risk of swallowing and drowning on ones own vomit.
Binge drinking, consuming 5 or more drinks in one setting for a male or 4 drinks in one setting for a female, is associated with an increase in behavioral problems, violence, accidents and injury.
There are also long- term consequences and concerns attributed to the chronic use of alcohol.
According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Chronic Alcohol use can have impact on the:
Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain's communication pathways, and can affect the way the brain looks and works. These disruptions can change mood and behavior, and make it harder to think clearly and move with coordination.
Heart: Drinking a lot over a long time or too much on a single occasion can damage the heart, causing problems including:
• Cardiomyopathy - Stretching and drooping of heart muscle
• Arrhythmias - Irregular heart beat
• High blood pressure
Liver: Heavy drinking takes a toll on the liver, and can lead to a variety of problems and liver inflammations including:
• Steatosis, or fatty liver
• Alcoholic hepatitis
Pancreas: Alcohol causes the pancreas to produce toxic substances that can eventually lead to pancreatitis, a dangerous inflammation and swelling of the blood vessels in the pancreas that prevents proper digestion
There is also a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol consumption and several types of cancer.
The research evidence indicates that the more alcohol a person drinks--particularly the more alcohol a person drinks regularly over time--the higher his or her risk of developing an alcohol-associated cancer. Based on data from 2009, an estimated 3.5 percent of all cancer deaths in the United States (about 19,500 deaths) were alcohol related.
Some of the specific types of cancer incude:
• Head and neck cancer: Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for certain head and neck cancers, particularly cancers of the oral cavity (excluding the lips), pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box). People who consume 50 or more grams of alcohol per day (approximately 3.5 or more drinks per day) have at least a two to three times greater risk of developing these cancers than nondrinkers. Moreover, the risks of these cancers are substantially higher among persons who consume this amount of alcohol and also use tobacco.
• Esophageal cancer: Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for a particular type of esophageal cancer called esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, people who inherit a deficiency in an enzyme that metabolizes alcohol have been found to have substantially increased risks of alcohol-related esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
• Liver cancer: Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for, and a primary cause of, liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). (Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are the other major causes of liver cancer.)
• Breast cancer: More than 100 epidemiologic studies have looked at the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer in women.
These studies have consistently found an increased risk of breast cancer associated with increasing alcohol intake. A meta-analysis of 53 of these studies (which included a total of 58,000 women with breast cancer) showed that women who drank more than 45 grams of alcohol per day (approximately three drinks) had 1.5 times the risk of developing breast cancer as nondrinkers (a modestly increased risk). The risk of breast cancer was higher across all levels of alcohol intake: for every 10 grams of alcohol consumed per day (slightly less than one drink), researchers observed a small (7 percent) increase in the risk of breast cancer.
The Million Women Study in the United Kingdom (which included more than 28,000 women with breast cancer) provided a more recent, and slightly higher, estimate of breast cancer risk at low to moderate levels of alcohol consumption: every 10 grams of alcohol consumed per day was associated with a 12 percent increase in the risk of breast cancer.
• Colorectal cancer: Alcohol consumption is associated with a modestly increased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum. A meta-analysis of 57 cohort and case-control studiesthat examined the association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer risk showed that people who regularly drank 50 or more grams of alcohol per day (approximately 3.5 drinks) had 1.5 times the risk of developing colorectal cancer as nondrinkers or occasional drinkers. For every 10 grams of alcohol consumed per day, there was a small (7 percent) increase in the risk of colorectal cancer.
Information gathered from the NIAAA website:
https://niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body . National Institute of Health, NIAAA, Alcohol's Effect on the Body , retrieved Jan 7, 2019.
Alcohol is a Central Nervous System Depressant. Mixing Alcohol with other drugs--prescription and non prescription--can have complicated, and at times dangerous interactions.
Article on Alcohol and Drug Interactions can be found at: https://www.drugs.com/article/medications-and-alcohol.html
Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders:
According to the Substance Abuse and Mental health Services Administration (SAMHSA):
Co-occurring Mental and Substance Use Disorders
The coexistence of both a mental health and a substance use disorder is referred to as co-occurring disorders.
According to SAMHSA's 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) (PDF | 3.4 MB), approximately 7.9 million adults had co-occurring disorders in 2014. During the past year, for those adults surveyed who experienced substance use disorders and any mental illness, rates were highest among adults ages 26 to 49 (42.7%). For adults with past-year serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders, rates were highest among those ages 18 to 25 (35.3%) in 2014. ( https://www.samhsa.gov/disorders, retrieved 01/08/2019)
Alcohol Use Disorders:
Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) - 2014 (PDF | 3.4 MB) show that in 2014, slightly more than half (52.7%) of Americans ages 12 and up reported being current drinkers of alcohol. Most people drink alcohol in moderation. However, of those 176.6 million alcohol users, an estimated 17 million have an AUD.
Many Americans begin drinking at an early age. In 2012, about 24% of eighth graders and 64% of twelfth graders used alcohol in the past year.
The definitions for the different levels of drinking include the following:
Moderate Drinking-According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, moderate drinking is up to 1 drink per day for women and up to 2 drinks per day for men.
Binge Drinking-SAMHSA defines binge drinking as drinking 5 or more alcoholic drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) defines binge drinking as a pattern of drinking that produces blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of greater than 0.08 g/dL. This usually occurs after 4 drinks for women and 5 drinks for men over a 2 hour period.
Heavy Drinking-SAMHSA defines heavy drinking as drinking 5 or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days.
Federally Required Information Disclosure and Request for Alcohol and other Drug Reports:
Duquesne University is providing this information in compliance with the HEOA, Sec 107, Amended HEA, Sec 120 (20 U.S.C. 1011i); new HEA Sec. 120 (a)(2)(B)-(C). 34CFR 86 guideline.
To request a copy of information given to students in regard to alcohol and other drug prevention efforts, and/or results of annual reviews of the DU CARES program please contact:
Dr. Daniel Gittins, Associate Director of DU CARES, Department of Residence Life at firstname.lastname@example.org or at ORL@duq.edu.